Minority is agriculture. The below Table 1 gives

                Minority farmers are those
farmers who belong to religious minority communities in India.  As per the National Minorities Act 1992, the
religious minorities in India include Muslims, Christians, Buddhists, Jains,
Sikhs, and Parsis.  As per the 2001
census, religious minorities constitute 18 percent of the population in
India. 

                  As in India, so in Karnataka
state the size of minority population accounts for 17.86 percent (Source:
Government of India-Report of the National Commission for religious and
linguistic minorities may 2007).  As per
the Socio-Economic and Educational survey of minorities 1994 conducted by
Karnataka State minorities commission 49.96 percent of minorities resides in
rural area whose major occupation is agriculture.

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The below Table 1 gives the information on community wise total
agricultural land held and irrigated by all sources.  

                                                                            Table-1

Community
wise total agricultural land held by minority farmers and irrigated area in
Karnataka

SL
NO

Name
of community

Land
held(Acres)

Land
irrigated (Acres)

Irrigated
land in per cent of total land held

1

Muslim

203158

53401

26

2

SC
Converted christians

9210

1919

21

3

Non
SC Christians

35415

16414

46

4

Digambar
Jains

28567

16585

58

5

Shwethambar
Jains

1242

524

42

6

Sikhism

96

39

41

7

Buddhism

249

90

36

8

Zorastrainism

63

21

33

 

Total

278000

88993

32

Source: Socio-Economic and Educational
Survey of Minorities 1994 by Karnataka State Minorities Commission 

         It is evident from the above table
that only 32 percent agriculture land of minority farmers has been irrigated by
all sources.  The remaining 68 percent of
agricultural land entirely depend on rain fall which is uncertain scanty and
erratic in nature. Drought and Scarcity conditions are very common.  Due to this the minority farmers cannot
increase their agricultural production and productivity and they are facing
many economic hardships.  To reduce the
economic hardships to raise the farm income of these farmers there is a
necessity to provide irrigational facilities more particularly minor irrigation
facility. Minor irrigation projects are more advantageous than major and medium
irrigation projects because they require less capital and short gestation
period. 

Minor
irrigation schemes can irrigate the land less than 2000 hectares of land.  Minor irrigation schemes include ground water
and surface water projects.  The ground
water schemes include dug wells, shallow tube wells and pump sets and surface
water from tanks and reservoirs to farms. 
Though minor irrigation schemes are very advantageous when compared to
major and medium irrigation projects, minority farmers are unable to take up
minor irrigation schemes on their own due to poverty.  Without institutional support and financial
assistance, it would be difficult to them to get strengthen.  In this back drop Karnataka Minorities
Development Corporation Ltd which was set up in 1986 by the Government of
Karnataka introduced minor irrigation scheme for minority farmers viz “Ganga
Kalyana Yojane” in Karnataka. 

 

 

 Rationale
behind the Study

            
Provision of irrigation facilities has been responsible for the increase
in cropping intensity, change in cropping pattern and change in farm
income.  Several research works have
estimated the cost, returns and profits of individual crops in agricultural land
where minor irrigation has been adopted. 
But very limited research works have been carried out to analyze the
impact of various minor irrigation programs on Socio-Economic conditions of
farmers in and around the state. 
Moreover, there are no studies which analyze the impact of minor
irrigation scheme like Ganga Kalyana Yojane on Socio-Economic conditions of
religious minority farmers in Karnataka State. 
This signifies the need of investigation.  Therefore an attempt is made to study the
impact of Ganga Kalyana Scheme on cropping pattern of minority farmers in the
study area.  This study is a part of
minor research project sponsored by University Grants Commission on the title
“Impact of Ganga Kalyana scheme of Karnataka Minorities Development Corporation
Ltd on Socio-Economic conditions of minorities in Karnataka- A Case study of
Chickmagalur District”, the study of which is in progress. 

 Methodology

                 The study was undertaken in
two taluk Narasimharajapura and Tarikere in chickmagalure district.  The study is based on both primary and
secondary data.  For primary data the
grama panchayaths of both the taluks were divided in to North, South, East and
West zones and then with the help of stratified random sampling total fifty
respondents were selected and interviewed with the help of questionnaire.  Secondary data were collected from various
books, Magazines, Journals, Reports of minorities commission, Head office and
district office of KMDC Ltd, Directorate of economics and statistics and from
various websites. 

Limitations

               Though the study pertained to chickmagalore
district it has covered only two taluks, Narasimharajapura and Tarikere and
hence cannot be generalized to the entire district. ? The study covered the
bore wells drilled under Ganga Kalyana Scheme from 2006-07 to 2011-12 only. ?
Though Ganga Kalyana Scheme has two sub schemes of minor irrigation like
community irrigation and individual bore well scheme, the present study covered
only individual bore well scheme. 

 

 

 

 

 

Profile
Of Chickmagalure District

                       Chickmagalure is a
district in the Indian state of Karnataka. The district is situated between 120541 4211
and 130 531 5311 north latitude and between 750
041 4611and 760 211 5011
east longitude.

                        The
below table 2 gives the important information about the study area.

Table 2: The general information about the district is depicted as
below.

Sl No

Particulars

Chickmagalure
District data.

1

Area (Sq. K.m)

7201

2

Population

1137753

 

Male

567483

Female

570270

Rural

898079

Urban

239674

3

Density of Population per Sq.k.m

158

4

Sex Ratio No of F/1000m

1005

5

Literacy Ratio

79.24

 

Male

85.66

Female

72.88

6

Taluks:-

07 Kadur, Chickmagalur, Tarikere, Mudigere, Koppa and N.R.Pura

7

Fallow Land

27836 Hectare

8

Area Sown

323635 Hectare

9

Major
Agricultural Crops

 

 

Cereals

Ragi, Paddy, Maize, Jowar

Oilseeds

Sunflower ,Groundnut

Commercial crops

Cotton, Sugarcane

Plantation

Coffee, Coconut, Arecanut, Rubber

Spices

Pepper, Cardamum, Ginger

Vegetables

Potato, Chilli, Tomato, Onion

Fruits

Banana, Mango, Mandrins, Sapota

10

Languages Spoken

Kannada Official languge Urde, Malayali, Tamil, Konkani

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The
community-wise break-up of Minority Population in India, as per 2011 census is
given below table.                                                                         Table – 3

Religious

Percentage

Population

All Religion

100%

1,210,193,422 Crore

Hindu

79.80%

96.62 Crores

Muslims

14.23%

17.22 Crores

Christians

2.30%

2.78 Crores

Sikhs

1.72%

2.08 Crores

Buddhists

0.70%

84.43 Lakhs

Jains

0.37%

44.52 Lakhs

Other Religion

0.66%

79.38 Lakhs

Not Stated

0.24%

28.67 Lakhs

     Source: Census of India
2011.

 

Ganga
Kalyana Yojane:

           Under the Ganga Kalyana Yojane
(GKY), the corporation offers two types of minor      irrigation
facilities, which are given below.

a.      
Community Irrigation:

           This scheme is to provide irrigation
facility through lift irrigation scheme utilizing   the       perennial
source of water (rivers) and lifting water through pipelines.

           Wherever perennial water sources are
not available, Bore wells are drilled underground, Submersible pump set well be
installed and energisation for the bore well will be done by the corporation.  The beneficiaries should be small and marginal
farmers and those who have totally 8 acres of land comprising 3 beneficiaries
will get 2 Bore wells and 15 acres of land comprising of 5 beneficiaries will
get 3 Bore wells, and each beneficiary should have 2 to 3 acres of land.  This scheme is entirely a subsidy scheme.

b.     
Individual Bore well: 

                 On the selection by the
Competent Authority, under individual bore well scheme, for the beneficiary
holding 2 to 5 acres of land, one bore well will be drilled and pump set will
be supplied.  The total expenditure is
Rs.1,00,000 (Grant of Rs. 86,000 and Loan of Rs. 14,000), this includes
Energisation charges.  The corporation is
allocating the physical and financial target based on allocation made in the
budget and minority population.  The
district manager of the concerned district invites the application through
newspapers.  The received application
will be scrutinized and District manager will place the proposal before the
Taluq Committee headed by Concerned MLA of the constituency.  The committee will select the beneficiary and
forward the proceedings to the head office.

Conditions:

1.     
The Beneficiaries should belong to the
religious minority communities as defined in the Government order.

2.     
They should be permanent resident of
Karnataka State.

3.     
They should be small and marginal
farmers.

4.     
The annual income of the family should
not exceed Rs.22, 000.

5.     
They should be solely dependent on
agriculture and should not have any other type of irrigational facility.

6.     
The lift irrigation scheme will be
implemented subject to unit cost of Ganga Kalyana Scheme and by prior
permission of the irrigation department.

 

 

DATA
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

             Table – 4. Showing the annual
income of Respondents before adopting the Scheme.

Sl
No

Income
Level

No
of Respondents

Percentage

1

Less
than 50000

50

100

2

50,000
to 1 lakh

Nil

Nil

3

1
Lakh to 2 Lakh

Nil

Nil

4

More
than 2 Lakh

Nil

Nil

 

Total

50

100

Source: Field
Survey

 It is clear from the above table that all the
respondents annual income falls less than Rs.50,000.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure -01

.

Table
– 5 showing the annual income of Respondents after adopting the Scheme.

Sl
No

Income
level

No
of Respondents

Per
centage

1

Less
than 50,000

20

40

2

50,000
to 1 Lakh

27

54

3

1
Lakh to 2 Lakh

03

06

4

More
than 2 Lakh

Nil

Nil

 

Total

50

100

Source: Field
Survey.

      It
is clear from the above table that gradual increase in the annual income of
respondents after adopting Ganga Kalyana Scheme about 40% of respondents annual
income is less than 50,000 per anaum and about 54 per cent respondent’s income
falls between 50,000 to 1 Lakh per annaum and about 6 per cent of respondents
income falls between 1 lakh to 2 lakh per annum.

MAJOR
FINDINGS OF THE STUDY

Major findings of the study are
given below.

It
is observed in the study that before adopting the irrigation facility offered
under the scheme, the average annual income of all the respondents in the study
area was less than Rs, 50.000 per anaum.  But after adopting the Ganga Kalyana Scheme
irrigation in their land 54 per cent respondent’s income gradually increased up
to  Rs. 1 lakh per anaum. Even 6 per cent
respondents have said that their income per anaum has gone up to Rs. 2 lakh, in
the study area, which enabled the farmers to meet at least their basic needs of
the society.It is also observed from the study that  8 per cent of the respondents have opined
that the Ganga Kalyana Scheme has not contributed anything to their income
level, because of the low amount of water in the bore well and in some cases
water will be their only during rainy season, 
in summer borewell would be dried up and in some cases though they have
got borewell in to their land 
energisation has not been done, frequent repair of the pumpsets, load
shedding of power problem etc. Whereas 92 per cent of the respondents have
opined that the scheme has improve their standard of living and overall
economic condition.

SUGGESTIONS
AND CONCLUSION

On
the basis of the findings of the study the following suggestion have been made
that would help to improve the working of Ganga Kalyana Scheme and to show
positive impact on socio-economic conditions of minority farmers.

1.      The
Scheme should be extended more to those farmers who belongs to the joint
family. Because in joint families the size of dependents would be more. By
providing irrigation we could make the dependents to work more in their own
agricultural land which enhances their income level.

2.      Since
majority of the minority farmers are illiterate and having only primary
education, more attempts should be made to educate them about the various
schemes and programmes offered by Central and State Government agencies to
uplift the socio-economic conditions of farmers.

3.      The
minority communities like Buddhists, Jain, Sikh are not benefiting from this
scheme in the study area, either they do not have land, or they might have
remain out of sampling population. But still the KMDC Ltd., should find out
such farmers and motivate them to avail the benefit from such schemes like
Ganga Kalyana Scheme.

4.      The
corporation should take initiatives to the larger extentent to promote the
scheme in those taluks where minority farmers are concentrated more in numbers.
More number of bore wells should be allotted to each taluk so that none of the
minority farmers should be uncovered under the scheme.

5.      The
scheme should be extended to those farmers who have land even more than 5 acres
up to 10 acres without any irrigation facilities, which can prevent further
fragmentation of the land.

6.      In
those cases where the bore wells are dried up during summer, rain water
harvesting facilities should be arranged so that ground water level of such
bore well point should have water across the year.

7.      The
selection procedure of the farmers to cover under Ganga Kalyana Scheme should
be transparent and fair enough.  An MLA
who is the chairman of the selection committee would discriminate while
choosing the farmers to avail the benefits from such scheme.  Hence he should be kept outside the selection
authority so that fair and equitable justice can be done to all minority
farmers.

8.      In
many cases found in field survey though more amount of water has been got in
bore wells small size of lengths or pipes have been installed.  That should not be done proper care should be
taken while installing the pipes and pump sets.

9.      In
most of the cases borewells have been drilled half a decade back, but still
energisation has not been done. Therefore no delay should be made during the energisation
of the borewell, otherwise purpose will not be served.

10.  The
legal formalities which have to be fulfilled by the farmers to available
benefit from such scheme should be simplified so that problems of middlemen,
agents or broker’s role can be checked.

11.  Many
marginal farmers of minority communities after getting the irrigation facility
through the Ganga Kalyana Scheme, not able to grow commercial crops due to lack
of fencing. The KMDC Ltd., has to make an arrangement to provide fencing to the
lands at least where the bore wells are drilled in the lands of minority
farmers.

12.  The
good quality materials and equipments should be supplied to the borewell
otherwise the agency which has supplied the equipments should be held
responsible for any kind of damages of the borewell.

13.  The
agricultural lands where bore wells are failed in getting the water under this
scheme, should be given one more chance subsequently at the alternative points,
so that justice can be done to such type of farmers.

14.  The
KMDC Ltd. should have tie up with agriculture, horticulture, floriculture,
departments to educate the farmers to grow more commercial and food crops in
the available period based on land holding, since the supply of regular water
is insured through adoption of Ganga Kalyana

15.  The
very common complaint of the respondents interviewed with regard to the
borewell was load shedding of  power to
lift the water. And also till date many of the farmers though they have fertile
land are unabled to get irrigation through scheme like Ganga Kalyana due to
impossibility of electric supply. To overcome this and give the justice to
minority farmers the KMDC Ltd., should have tie up with companies like
Protonics systems India pvt ltd., Noida, Creative Engineers Ahamadabad and
Tachometric Controls Pune which are offering solar pumpsets.

16.  The
KMDC Ltd., has to increase the ceiling on income of the minority farmers while
selecting them under Ganga Kalyana Scheme which is Rs. 22.000 per anaum at
present.

17.  The
KMDC Ltd., has to increase the target cost of Ganga Kalyana Borewell from
existing Rs 1.00.000 to 2.00.000 so that the minority farmers should not face
any problem in installing the pump set and energisation of their borewell. 

18.  The
corporation has to start separate call centre to attend the grievances of
minority farmers with regard to the energrsation , operation, maintence and
other problems related to working of the borewell, so that efficiency of the
bore well can be maintained.                   
                          

    Conclusion

       No
doubt in order to uplift the socio-economic and educational conditions of
religious minority communities in the national level and at the state level
both the Central Government and the State Government have been introducing
various schemes and progrmmes.  When Late
Srimathi Indira Gandhi became the prime minister of this country, she shown her
keen interest and concern on a vision of “Growth with Social Justice” and her
slogan of “Garibi Hatavo(Remove poverty)” became the guidelines for the affairs
of the state.

    In “vision India 2020” by A.P.J.Abdul Kalam
and Y.S.Rajan have said that “the vision for agricultural prosperity can be
considered as a vision which uses all the advantages of agro-climatic and
natural resources, with the use of right and continuous does of
technology.”  The vision for minority
farmers in agriculture is not different from that of other communities. The
Government of Karnataka through its corporation viz.. “Karnataka minorities
Development Corporation Ltd., has proved that it is committed to improve the
socio-economic and educational states of minority farmers more particularly
small and marginal farmers of minority communities it has implemented the minor
irrigation scheme viz.. Ganga Kalayana Scheme.

   

This
study has found in its findings that, the Ganga Kalyana Scheme adopted and
implemented by the KMDC Ltd., definitely has an positive impact on the
economiccondition of minority farmers, in the study area. Though there is a
gradual increase in income level of minority farmers in the study area, the
corporation should look in to the suggestions suggested under this study to
improve the operation of Ganga Kalayana Scheme, and then only the study would
serve its purpose.

    Lastly, this study also invite the kind
attention of the farmers of the minority communities to organize themselves as
self-help group, set up of farmers co-operative societies, village development
societies (at village level) and urban development societies at taluk, district
and state level to make organize efforts to participate in their socio-economic
development with whatever help that comes from state or KMDC Ltd. Empowerment
lies within, we need to have urge to empower ourselves, then only the welfare
programmes of the state would have the meaning.