Medicare and Medicaid are two federal government funding programs that provide medical and health related services to groups of people who meets a certain criteria in the United States. Although the two programs have their differences, they are both managed by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services is a division of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Medicare is the federal health insurance program for people who are sixty-five years old or older. Certain individuals under sixty-five years old with disabilities, and residents with End-Stage Renal Disease are also covered under Medicare.. “With the rapid increase in the prevalence of type II diabetes and the aging of the population, the annual number of new patients entering the ESRD program is expected to increase from 100,359 in 2002 to 460,000 in 2030 (Collins et al., 2005).” (DeWalt et al., 2005). Kidney failure, is often referred to as end-stage renal disease. ESRD is the last stage of chronic kidney disease when the kidneys are no longer functioning without dialysis or a kidney transplant.There are four specific portions of Medicare assistance which only covers specific services Medicare Part A, Medicare Part B, and Medicare Part C. Medicare Part A provides benefits and coverage for inpatient hospital care, patient stays in majority of skilled nursing facilities, hospice, and home health services. Medicare Part B is provides Medicare benefits and coverage for preventive care, long lasting medical supplies, hospital outpatient services, lab tests, screenings, x-rays, surgical fees, mental health care, and physical therapy. Insurance coverage for home health services and ambulance services may vary when it comes down to Medicare Part B. Medicare Part C plans or Medicare advantage are conducted by private companies. Medicare Part D covers prescription drug expenses.This federal government program is used to finance the cost of prescription drugs and prescription drug insurance premiums for Medicare recipients.. Medicare Advantage Plans or Medicare Part D combine Part A and Part B together in one plan. They can also be combined with Part D prescription drug coverage creating a Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug Plan. Normally, these plans are offered as; Medicare Advantage Health Maintenance Organizations, Medicare Advantage Preferred Provider Organizations, Medicare Advantage Private Fee-for-Service. To be eligible for Medicare Part A and Part B, an individual must be a citizen of the United States or a permanent legal resident for at least five consecutive years. A person also has to be sixty-five years of age and eligible for Social Security. Social Security is a federal insurance program that provides benefits to retired people and those who are unemployed or disabled. Further, if citizens are receiving benefits from Social Security or the Railroad Retirement Board, residents will automatically receive Part A and Part B starting the first day of the month of age of sixty-five. If permanently disabled and is receiving disability for a minimum of two years; someone may be able to automatically receive Part A and Part B after receiving disability benefits from Social Security for twenty-four months. Another special circumstance for receiving Part A and Part B is if diagnosed with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, or ALS. Automatically residents are enrolled into Medicare Part A when sixty-five and become eligible for Social Security; but if Medicare Part B is needed an individual has to be enrolled.Thirty-two states and Washington D.C. provides Medicaid benefits to residents eligible for Supplemental Security Income. In these States, the SSI application is also the Medicaid application. Medicaid eligibility starts the same months as SSI eligibility. Each state runs several different Medicaid funded programs for different groups of people. “Opportunities for bipartisan compromise to improve Medicaid’s value may lie in greater flexibility for states, realignment of incentives related to long-term services, improved integration of physical and behavioral health care, and efforts to lower drug costs.” http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1705487 All states programs have some things in common. For example, each state must cover certain groups of people, including; older people, people with disabilities, pregnant women and children. However, the financial eligibility levels for these different groups do not have to be the same. Each states have programs to cover the cost of nursing home care for people with limited incomes and assets who need this level of care. Each state have programs to provide home and community based care to people with limited incomes and assets who need long-term care services. Each state must cover home health care for those with limited incomes and assets who need it. All states use financial eligibility rules to determine whether you are eligible for Medicaid coverage. Usually, an individual’s income and assets must be below a certain amount to qualify, but this amount varies from state to state. The Children’s Health Insurance Program or CHIP was established in August 1997. The goal of the program was to expand health insurance coverage for low-income uninsured children. In comparison to previous expansions in public coverage, the CHIP legislation explicitly sought to target the program to the uninsured. Also, because of the higher federal matching rates, to ensure that states maintained their level of effort under the Medicaid program. This focus led to legislative criteria that states implement mechanisms to prevent the substitution of public coverage for private coverage and that states maintain their Medicaid eligibility maximum limit at pre-CHIP levels and not cover those children under CHIP. “Implementation of the CHIP program resulted in large increases in public coverage with estimates of crowd-out consistent with initial projections made by the Congressional Budget Office.” Studies have demonstrated that public health insurance expansions can lead to substantial reductions in those without insurance without causing a major decline of employer coverage. (Dubay & Kenney, 2009).Residents can have both Medicare and Medicaid. Medicaid can cover services that Medicare criteria excludes such as, extended long-term care. It will also cover Medicare’s out-of-pocket costs like deductibles, coinsurances, copayments. “The program once derided as a “poor program for poor people” has marked its golden anniversary, outpaced Medicare to now cover 72 million people, (CMS, 2015), achieved recognition for its achievements in maternal and child health and long-term care (Iglehart, 2015R), and solidified its role as a cost-effective way to expand coverage (Sparer, 2015). Thanks to tax payers low income families, the elderly, the disabled, pregnant woman and children can receive adequate health care services. The elderly and permanently disabled are eligible to obtain financial assistance with hospital care, physical therapy, home healthcare and preventive care. Women who are expecting and have limited income are covered for all treatment related to the pregnancy, the delivery and any unexpected complications that may occur during pregnancy, and up to sixty days postpartum. Children’s Medicaid recipients are able to quality dental services, eye exams and glasses, regular checkups and office visits, prescription drugs, vaccines, access to medical specialists, mental health care, hospital care, medical supplies, X-rays, lab tests, and treatment of special health needs.