Learning and understanding cells is important as it is the basic unit of every living thing. Organisms are made up of one or more cells organized into different units with specific and unique structural and functional characteristics. Living cells are either single-celled or multicellular. Unicellular organisms are made up of single cells while Multicellular organisms consists of multiple highly specialized cells grouped into different tissues carrying out their specific functions and in turn successfully keeping the organism operational and alive, for example human beings.
Cells are unique to different types of organisms. They are divided into macromolecules and organelles with different responsibilities and purpose which is essential for the whole organism to survive and grow. The basic structure of a cell includes: Cell Wall, Cell Membrane, Cytoplasm, Endoplasmic reticulum, Ribosomes, Mitochondria, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes, Vacuoles, Nuclear Membrane, Nucleus, Nucleolus, Chromosomes, and some may have Chloroplast. Each piece have its specialized function:
The Cell wall is a thick layer that helps protect the plasma membrane.
The Cell Membrane controls the substances that go in and out of the cell
The Cytoplasm serves as a skeletal structure that stabilizes the organelles and maintaining its shape.
Endoplasmic Reticulum is divided into two types: Smooth ER which has insufficient ribosomes and carry out the lipid synthesis; while Rough ER contains ribosomes and carry out the protein synthesis.
Ribosomes are essential part of protein synthesis.
Mitochondria is known as the powerhouse of the cell where most cell respiration occurs.
Golgi Apparatus helps with moving substances within the cell.
Lysosomes helps break down waste products within the cell.
Vacuoles helps store substances for future use.
Nuclear Membrane protects the nucleus by creating a barrier dividing the nucleus and outer organelles of the cell.
Nucleus plays a vital role in cell reproduction.
Nucleolus plays a role in cell’s ribosomal and protein synthesis.
Chromosomes are where DNA is located and it serves as a manual for DNA synthesis.
Chloroplast is where photosynthesis occurs vital for most plants and some prokaryotic organism.
Each structure is important in maintaining cell functional to do their work. However, in order for cells to perform its job, it needs a biochemical energy, which is known as ATP. One of the specific ways to create ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) is through the metabolic process called Cellular Respiration. It is a process that produces energy by breaking down the sugar or carbohydrates from the food being digested. There are two main processes that happen during cellular respiration; the transformation of glucose to pyruvate which is also known as glycolysis. The second process is oxidation of the Pyruvic acid which produces carbon dioxide and water. Other organisms that has chloroplasts, such as plants, converts energy from sunlight, a process known as Photosynthesis. ATP allows cells to work which is very important in every metabolic and chemical process transversing within an organism. ATP is also highly necessary for cellular reproduction as many organelles are involved in it.
Cellular reproduction or cell division is a process by which one cell is divided into two identical daughter cells, a process known as Mitosis. The steps include: Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase and Cytokinesis. Meiosis, on the other hand, is a division of gametes into four daughter cells each consisting half the number of chromosomes of each parent cell. Meiosis consists of the same step processes but after cytokinesis and telophase it loops back into Prophase as Prophase II, then Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telophase II and cytokinesis.
Genetics is an interesting topic in biology, everyone is born with different genes and traits so no one can ever look the same because theirs always a slight difference. An example would be a set of identical twins, from afar this set of twins can look identical but when you come up close one twin can be skinnier or have beauty marks on their face but regardless they are not truly identical. According to Gregor Mendel, an Austrian monk who discovered the traits of heredity; the principle of the Mendel Law is that it is explaining that in the process of the assembling of gametes the two copies of each hereditary factor segregate so that way the offsprings gain one factor from each of their parents.
Everyone has DNA, but not everyone’s DNA is the same, as many people would like to say DNA is what makes a person, DNA is known as the information molecule for the body. The purpose of DNA is to remind the body to make molecules also known as proteins. DNA molecules consists of two long polynucleotide chains which are composed of four types of nucleotide subunits. DNA can also be known as a DNA chain or a DNA strand.
Cancer is the collection of related diseases in the human body. There are numerous types of cancer. Cancer happens when some of the body’s cells begin to divide without stopping and expand into surrounding tissues throughout the body. When cancer develops, however, this orderly process breaks down. When cells start to become deviant, aged or impaired the cells survive when they are meant to die, and the new cells eventually form when they are not required. The new cells can keep splitting away from one another and can eventually grow tumors. The regulation of the gene execution which also accommodates a wide variety of mechanisms that are used by cells to add or subtract the formulation of the specific genes. This formulation generally happens when one gene regularly controls another forming different types of arrangements.