LEADERSHIP Motivation, on a 5-point and 7-point scale


The study explores how
at the western region of a leading oil and refinery Company, leadership styles
(the independent variable) influence employee motivation (the dependent
variable). Data of both types, primary and secondary, have been used for the
study. Secondary data has been collected through published data in public
domain. For primary data, using random sampling, 75 questionnaires were
distributed, out of which 50 were completed. The questionnaire contains
different elements drawn from a) The Full Range Leadership Development Model,
developed by Bass and Avolio (1994) and b) Work Motivation Scale. The
instrument employs 29 questions on Leadership style and 10 questions on
Motivation, on a 5-point and 7-point scale respectively. The survey was administered
between Jan and March 2014. The researcher found that the dominant leadership
styles were transformational and transactional and employees were moderately
motivated. The results show that different leadership style factors will have
different impacts on employee motivation components. Co-relation between
Transformational Leadership styles and employee motivation is positive and the
score is 0.602. Co-relation between transactional style and motivation is also
positive and the score is 0.329. However, the degree of co-relation is less,
which means that, transformational style of leadership motivates employees more
than transactional style. Laissez-fairre style, on the other hand, has a
negative co-relation with motivation. This means that employees are not
satisfied. All the co-relations are highly significant.

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This study investigated
the main effects of leadership styles on employee performance at Business
Organizations in Kosovo.  It specifically
sought to determine the impact of autocratic; bureaucratic; charismatic;
democratic; laissez-faire; transformational and transactional leadership styles
on employee performance at Business Organizations in Kosovo. The role of
leaders in today’s organizations has changed and the success of any
organization relies on the leadership styles practiced by the leaders. A good
leader understands the importance of employees in achieving the goals of the
organization, and that motivating the employees is of paramount importance in
achieving these goals. Different leadership styles bring about different
consequences, which have direct or indirect impact on the attitude and behaviors
of the employees. The findings of this study indicated that democratic,
autocratic and transformational leadership styles positively impacted the level
of employee performance.  The results of
the correlation analyses revealed that charismatic, bureaucratic, laissez-faire
and transactional leadership style has a negative impact on the level of
employee performance but statistically it is not significant. Each leadership
style is a combination of different types of behavior and characteristics of
leaders. If there is the need to make a decision quickly and take urgent
action, a leader should rely on the autocratic style. If the group is
undisciplined and poorly organized, the autocratic style is more efficient. The
democratic leadership style matches with a well-organized and stable group. In
the longer term, the democratic style of leadership, which includes giving
employees a certain freedom and involving them in decision-making, is more
productive.  The transformational
leadership style matches with attempts to induce followers to reorder their needs
by transcending self-interests and strive for higher order needs. The result
clearly indicates that transformational leadership is correlated with employee
performance. These results also informed that employee performance is heavily
relying on leadership and it can play a vital role in determining the
performance of employees, so managers must carefully analyze, what kind of
leadership they should adopt if they to want to increase employee performance.


of Leadership Style on Employee Performance Iqbal N1*, Anwar S2 and Haider N1

The purpose of the
study was to investigate the effect of the different leadership styles
(autocratic, democratic, and participative) on the employees’ performance. The
autocratic style is characterized by an “I tell” philosophy. The democratic
approach is characterized by an “I share” philosophy. Participative leadership
style is that involves all members of a team in identifying essential goals and
developing procedures or strategies for reach those goals. One of the main
benefits of participative leadership is that the process allows for the
development of the additional leaders who can serve the organization at a later
date. As elaborate by Myron Rush and Cole the participative style of leadership
has a greater positive effect on employee performance in which situation
employee feel power and confidence in doing their job and in making different
decisions. And in autocratic style leaders only have the authority to take
decisions in which employees’ feels inferior in doing jobs and decisions. In
democratic style employee have to some extent discretionary power to do work so
their performance is better than in autocratic style. The
authoritative style is appropriate when new employees are unfamiliar and don’t
have sufficient know how about their jobs. The consultative style is
appropriate when organization needs creative problem solving. The participative
style is appropriate when organization have competent and talented team members.
The democratic leadership style in Al-Ghazi tractor factory would further empower
their employees by developing teams and according some measure of power and
authority to their employees. The Al-Ghazi tractor factory would immediate
reduces the autocratic leadership practices. Hence, Al-Ghazi tractor factory
would advocate for the better leadership styles that suites different
situations so as to reduce the dominance of autocratic leadership unless in
situations where it is necessary.



Case Study of the Impact of Leadership Styles 
on Bank Employees’ Job Satisfaction

Leadership always
plays an important role in the growth and performance of an organization.
Changes in organizational structure, vision and leadership are inevitable in
any institution. Leadership style is a special characteristic that
distinguishes a leader from another and this powerful force is what pushes an
employee or employees to complete a task that produces maximum results;
especially in the banking sector.  Survey
questionnaires were used in this study as a main method for data
collection.  The data was analyzed by
using the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) Method using Lisrel software.  This research has been conducted to determine
the impact of using transformational, relation-oriented and transactional
leadership styles and their direct effect on job Satisfaction.  A total of one hundred questionnaires were
distributed among SEB and Swede bank´s employees and seventy-one fully answered
questionnaires were used for statistical analysis. In other words, seventy-one
percent of the questionnaires were returned. 
The results clearly show that leadership style (Relation-oriented,
Transactional, and Transformational) have a significantly positive effect on
both the employer and employee’s satisfaction with the job.  The results indicate that the
Transformational approach ads the most contribution toward job satisfaction
compared to the Transactional and Relation-oriented styles of leadership. There
is a significant relationship between the transactional leadership and job
satisfaction. There is a significant relationship between the relation-oriented
leadership and job satisfaction.