Khatab SaeedMr. StinnefordEnglish 9 Honors23 January 2018TheGeorge Orwell’s Animal Farm is one masterpiece among many, but it has paved a unique path unlike many. It has paved a path on which propaganda resides, therefore, it has become the mother masterpiece of propaganda. This novella has, without a doubt, had a choke hold of preeminence in the propaganda scene throughout the twentieth century, but it is vulnerable, like many things, to change. Any alternative to an original entity, whether it be an idea, product, or in this case a story, will most likely contain traces of change and manipulation which will set said alternative, to an extent, as a separate entity. Of the alternatives generally established one in particular links itself to the prominent novella, Joy Batchelor, and John Halas’s 1954 Animal Farm film adaptation does just that, but unfortunately, the original message that Orwell had initially attempted to introduce was subjected to change. By adding to the original plot, the film directors had manipulated the overall theme and or meaning that every previous chapter of the novella had built up towards; moreover, the balanced and compatible ending that is required for the entirety of the story is utterly abandoned and the ending introduced in the film is contradictory to the earlier image that was illustrated by Orwell.It is first rational to establish the inceptive portrayal of Orwell’s intention or what he had attempted to display through writing Animal Farm. It is of the essence to focus upon this first in order to chronologically understand the bigger picture that was painted throughout his work, without doing so there would not be any more logical of an approach. Throughout the novella Orwell introduced many sub-concepts that tie into a larger concept which is that Communism is corruption, he also exposes the injustices and corruption that takes place within the Soviet Union, under Joseph Stalin. In his lifetime an overwhelming rise in Communism occurred which made many concerned, of them being himself. It was dangerous to criticize Communism at the time, but that wasn’t going to stop Orwell. By ingeniously utilizing the technique of symbolism, Orwell was able to criticize Communism and the Soviet Union without the repercussions that would have followed, that collection of ingenuity became what is now known as Animal Farm. By introducing characters that carried similar traits of real-life personas he was able to put together a story that symbolized the rise of Communism and the corruption that took place within the Soviet Union that ultimately resulted from the induction of Communism into governance. Orwell began by establishing what would symbolize Communism, Animalism. “These three had elaborated old Major’s teachings into a complete system of thought, to which they gave the name of Animalism” (Orwell 13). After establishing Animalism Orwell was able to illustrate the process of corruption that took place under the decree of Communism and Stalin in the symbolic light. In the excerpt, it is made clear that the animals have now clearly established Animalism, which would eventually be reduced to seven commandments, “The pigs had succeeded in reducing the principles of Animalism to Seven Commandments” (Orwell 20). By ordaining the Seven Commandments, Orwell was able to use them in order to show change and corruption, therefore, they played important and key roles in the portrayal of the general message of the novella. Orwell utilizes the presence of these commandments and the characters, particularly the ruling authoritative figure who symbolized Stalin, he was a pig named Napoleon, “I trust that every animal here appreciates the sacrifice that Comrade Napoleon has made in taking this extra labor upon himself. Do not imagine, comrades, that leadership is a pleasure” (Orwell 50)! The excerpt states that Napoleon has taken responsibility for leading the animals. Orwell directs the ruling pigs into changing the Seven Commandments over time to display the process of corruption. This is indeed evident in the novella, one of the commandments regards alcohol as a banned commodity, “No animal shall drink alcohol” (Orwell 21), thus it is an obvious truth that one of the Seven Commandments banned the drinking of alcohol, however, as the story progresses it is found that the law and or commandment regarding alcohol is changed and it then reads, “No animal shall drink alcohol in excess” (Orwell 96). Clearly, this commandment was altered when the addition, “in excess” was put in place, henceforth, it had become corrupted. This process is again repeated with other commandments such as, “No animal shall sleep in a bed” (Orwell 21) to, “No animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets” (Orwell 60), “No animal shall kill any other animal” (Orwell 21) to, “No animal shall kill any other animal without cause” (Orwell 80), and so on and so forth. Through changes like these Orwell is able to draw the picture of corruption and display the process of corruption under Animalism (Communism). From these excerpts, it is apparent that throughout the novella one common theme has been stressed and that message, that meaning, that theme is the notion that Communism is corruption and that there can not be any hope or degree of harmony under it.Now that the general message and meaning that Orwell conveyed in the novella has been stated and established, there is room for elaboration and discussion on why the alternate ending in the film has changed the message and meaning that was previously conveyed in the novella. Vital to the change in the theme, meaning, or message is the actual addition that occurred in the 1954 Animal Farm film adaptation where the animals rise up against the ruling party of pigs and the unification of the animals truly takes place (01:09:22-01:11:05), this is an addition of hope to an ending that first lacked that hope. “She has a tape recording of her father saying that the ending they used offers a glimmer of hope for the future. In an interview on British television in 1980, he defended the ending as being necessary to give the audience hope for the future” (Cohen, “The Cartoon That Came in from the Cold”). In the article excerpt Vivien Halas, the daughter of John Halas and Joy Batchelor who were co-directors of the 1954 film adaptation, states that her father’s aim was to create hope for the future which contradicts Orwell’s original message and the theme of the novella that was previously established. It is evident that the true aim of the film was to create hope for the future, as John Halas had yearned for, while, once again, Orwell plainly left the ending a plain hopeless scene which is the balanced and compatible ending that the story had built up towards, it was what the process of corruption was destined to create. Had Orwell introduced hope at the end, the negative connotations that he wanted to be attached to Communism and the Soviet Union would have been weakened? Howard Beckerman, an animator and author of Animation, states that, “If Orwell had lived longer, I suspect he would have vetoed any effort to translate his work into such a film” (Cohen, “The Cartoon That Came in from the Cold”), based on Howard Beckerman’s statement there is a clear understanding that Orwell’s intentions had been different to that of the filmmakers.The induction of hope in the final moments of the film gave way to a change in overall mood, theme, meaning, and the message that Orwell had attempted to introduce in the original Animal Farm novella. The hope lessened the enmity that Orwell had designed against Communism and the Soviet Union and lessened the severity of the injustices and corruption that took place due to Communism, not only in the novella but also in reality. Because Orwell’s intention and the message and theme of the story coincide they become one entity if one is changed the other will be affected. Because of the relationship between them, they became inseparable. By adding to the plot and changing the theme the film had gone against Orwell’s intention. Once again, the film introduced hope, thus changing the theme or mood and the Orwell’s message in which he proclaimed that Communism was indeed a corrupt ideology and that no hope or harmony could be reached or exist under or through it, the original aim alongside his message was to expose and criticize the Soviet Union and Stalin, which he did be utilizing symbolism and generously avoided the repercussions that would have followed had he not done so. Orwell’s use of such techniques rank his work among the best of the twentieth century but unfortunately, even the best of works are susceptible to manipulation like that of Animal Farm.