Jean Union to reconstruct psychology. His work was

Jean Piaget
(1896-1980) was a Swiss psychologist who was very well identified for his work
in child development (Wikipedia Piaget https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Piaget 4th January 2018). Prior to Piaget’s work, it was frequently presumed
that children have a lower ability at critical thinking in comparison to
adults. Piaget however demonstrated that children thought in extremely diverse
ways than adults (Saul McLeod https://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html 4 January). A review of primary education by the
UK government in 1966 was greatly centred on Piaget’s theory. The outcome of
this review headed to the publication of the Plowden report which was written
by Derrek Gillard. (1967) (Derrek Gillard http://www.infed.org/schooling/plowden_report.htm
4 January 2018).

Piaget believed that there are four stages to a child’s
development. He observed his own children and
their development into making sense of the world surrounding them. 
The four stages according to Piaget are; Sensorimotor (birth – 2 years),
Preoperational (2 years-7 years), Concrete operational (7 years-11 years), and
Formal operations (11 years onwards). According to Piaget, the progress of
language and thinking can be traced back to the actions, insights, and
impressions by babies. Although Piaget’s theories have countless support, the existence
of the four separate stages of development has been doubted. Several scientists
do consider that the cognitive development process is more of a continuous one
rather than a limited one. Another criticism is that though he believed in the
importance of social interaction, Piaget is criticized for overseeing the vital
effects of culture and social groups on children as well as underestimating the
cognitive abilities of children.

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Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) who was a Russian psychologist worked in post-revolutionary Soviet Union to reconstruct
psychology. His work was also focussed on creating theories of cognitive
development. Vygotsky’s conducted his research at the same time as Piaget;
however his work only become accessible in the west in 1960’s after being
barred in the Soviet Union. Vygotsky’s work was entirely different to Piaget’s
theories. Vygotsky claimed that cognitive development was dependent more on
relations with people and ‘tools’ that exist in the child’s world. According to Vygotsky, just
as humans use physical tools (i.e. knives, paper, pens, levers) to further
their physical capabilities, they also invented psychological implementations
to extend our mental capabilities (i.e. Numbers, charts, pictures, signs,
symbols). These are symbols of what we make use of to communicate and examine
our own lives. (Viva Vygotskyhttp://www.keytolearning.com/viva-vygotsky-freedom-of-thought
4 January 2018)

A belied of
Vygotsky was that everything is learned on two levels. The first of the two
levels is through interactions with others, and the second is combined into an
individual’s mental construction (Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory www.ceebl.manchester.ac.uk/events/archive/aligningcollaborativelearning/Vygotsky.pdf
2018). The two key principles of Vygotsky’s work were
Zone of proximal development, and having a more knowledgeable other. The
meaning of Zone of proximal development is the distance between where a learner
is on their own with no other support, and where they could be with the assistance
of a more knowledgeable other. A more knowledgeable other could be a peer, or an
adult who is guiding the learner to build their skills and successfully further
them. Vygotsky believed that there is a strong connection between learning
language and the development of thinking. Another belief of Vygotsky is that Scaffolding is the short-term support
that adults or more proficient peers use to support a child in learning a task.
When the child has wholly learned the task the short-term support or scaffold
is no longer necessary (Papalia, et al, 2011, pp. 34 & 270). Vygotsky’s theories have been criticized for many reasons. Some reasons
include Vygotsky’s
socio-cultural theory does not apply to every social and cultural group. The
reason for this is because social groups may not be entire and equal with all
learners being able to achieve the same meaning from arrangement. However, partnership
and partaking differs from one learner to another, henceforth the variation for
each learner. In addition to this, there are variations in abilities for each
learner, which produces learning constrictions e.g. not able to gain the same
meaning from group interactions as those learners without learning disabilities
or difficulties. (Lui & Matthews, 2005, p. 392). Another criticism for
Vygotsky’s theories did not refer to the cognitive processes that play a part
in a child’s development.

Both Piaget and Vygotsky believe that nature is not a
significant part in the learning process that humans go through. They both
state that one’s experience with things is what effects what one values, learns
and the general norms. Piaget and Vygotsky both agree that learners progress
from simple to complex material and abilities as they become older. An example
of this is when a person first begins to learn to write and eventually they are
able to construct full sentences and read advance texts and also construct them.
Another common belief that Piaget and Vygotsky share is that it is possible
that complex stages may never be reached by some people. According to Vygotsky,
development is dependent on the symbol system that people grow up with; the
symbols that cultures create to assist people to communicate, think, and solve
issues. (https://prezi.com/y6mous3pmpxo/compare-and-contrast-piaget-and-vygotskys-developmental-theories/ 16
January). Piaget and
Vygotsky both emphasise on nurture and nature, they both believe that heredity
and maturation of the brain and body is the nature aspect. Vygotsky and Piaget,
both believed that the relationship that is between the individual and the
social surrounding as being compulsory. Both Piaget and Vygotsky supposed that
social interaction is important. According to Piaget, cognitive development is
managed by a child’s natural tendency to adapt to new situations while Vygotsky
considers cognitive development to be driven by social interaction. Piaget
believed that children learn through active self-discovery whereas Vygotsky
believed that children learn through the guidance and instruction of their
peers (ttps://getrevising.co.uk/grids/comparison-between-piaget-and-vygotsky
10 January 2018).

Piaget saw language as merely a milestone in development whereas
according to Vygotsky, development cannot be separated from social context
while children can produce knowledge and take lead of their own development.
Vygotsky stated that language is a very important aspect of cognitive
development (PDF https://study.com/academy/lesson/differences-between-piaget-vygotskys-cognitive-development-theories.html). According to Piaget,
cognitive development is managed by a child’s natural tendency to adapt to new
situations while Vygotsky considers cognitive development to be driven by
social interaction. Piaget believed that children learn through active
self-discovery whereas Vygotsky believed that children learn through the
guidance and instruction of their peers (ttps://getrevising.co.uk/grids/comparison-between-piaget-and-vygotsky
10 January 2018). Piaget saw language as merely
a milestone in development whereas Vygotsky believed that development cannot be
detached from social context while children can create knowledge and take lead
of their own development. Vygotsky stated that language is a very important
aspect of cognitive development (https://study.com/academy/lesson/differences-between-piaget-vygotskys-cognitive-development-theories.html 10
January 2018).

According
to Vygotsky (1978), vital study by a child takes place through public
interactions with a qualified teacher. The instructor may design activities
and/or provide spoken guidelines for the child. Vygotsky represents this as
supportive or collaborative conversation. First the child looks to understand
the activities or guidelines offered by the instructor (this is mainly the mother
or father or teacher) the child will then internalize the information, they
will use this information to take control of their own efficiency. An example
of this is by Shaffer (1996) who gives the example of a child who is given her
first jigsaw.  Whilst working alone, she is
determined to try and resolve the challenge on her own. Sometime later, her dad
comes along and explains and demonstrates some basic techniques, for example
finding all the corner/edge items of the puzzle first and provides a couple of
items for the child to put together herself and the dad highly motivates her
when she does so. As the child becomes more competent of the task, the dad
allows the child to work more individually. Vygotsky believed, that this type
of public connection including supportive or/and collaborative conversation
encourages intellectual growth (http://www.cherriedesignz.com/comparison-of-piaget-amp-amp-vygotsky-on-children-cognition/ 15 January 2018)

To summaris, Vygotsky was questioning of Piaget’s hypothesis
that developmental growth was autonomous of experience and grounded on a
general representative of stages. Vygotsky alleged that characteristics did not
settle at any specific point as Piaget supposed. When one thing was learned, it
was put in use from then on. The child entering another stage of development
did not make it stop; everything was progressive, there was not end. Vygotsky
also did not agree with Piaget’s hypothesis that development could not be
obstructed or augmented through instruction. (Flanagan 1999 P.57) Vygotsky
belief was that intellectual development was recurrently growing even though
there was not an end point and not finalised in stages as Piaget theorised.
Piaget’s stages only suggest up to, and end with, roughly age fifteen. After
approximately age 16, this theory does not lack any key factors. (http://www.cherriedesignz.com/comparison-of-piaget-amp-amp-vygotsky-on-children-cognition/
15 January 2018) It is believed that there is still a lot more which we can still
learn and enhance on with Piaget and Vygotsky’s thoughts and theories,
specifically when in context to education.