It long-term nature, oriented towards the expected total

It has been recognized over the
last 30 years that project management is an efficient tool to handle complex
activities. It is more efficient than traditional methods of management, such
as the practice of functional divisions in a formal hierarchical organization,
for handling such situations. The process of bringing new projects on stream
and into the market imposes demands on established organizations and
necessitates different management techniques from those required to maintain
day-to-day operations. In such circumstances, where companies have a finite,
unique and unfamiliar undertaking the techniques of project management can be
successfully implemented. These undertakings would call for more and faster
decision making techniques them possible in a normal operation and making the
right choices will be critical to company success.

            The
use of project management has become associated with such novel complex
problems, which are inevitably called a project. Consequently the success of
project management has often been association with the final outcome of the
project. Over time it has been shown that project management and project
success are not necessarily directly related. The objectives of both project
management and the project are different and the control of time, cost and
progress, which are often the project management objectives, should not be
confused with measuring project success. Also, experience has shown that it is
possible to achieve a successful project even when management has failed and
vice versa.

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IMPORTANT ROLE OF PROJECT AND
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

            In order to important role between
the project and project management it is necessary to develop distinct
definitions for the two terms. A project can be considered to be the
achievement of a specific objective, which involves a series of activities and
tasks which consume resources. It has to be completed within a set
specification, having definite start and end dates.

            In
contrast, project management can be defined as the process of controlling the
achievement of the project objectives. Utilizing the existing organizational
structures and resources, it seeks to manage the project by applying a
collection of tools and techniques, without adversely disturbing the routine
operation of the company. The function of project management includes defining
the requirement of work, establishing the extent of work, allocating the
resources require, planning the execution of the work, monitoring the progress
of the work and adjusting deviations from the plan.

            The
important role of project and project management lies in the emphasis of both
definitions. The project is concerned with defining and selecting a task which
will be of overall benefit to the company. This benefit may be financial,
marketing or technical, but this will tend to be of a long-term nature, oriented
towards the expected total life span of the completed project. In the case of a
construction project the benefits could be extended over 50-100 years,
depending on the anticipated building life. In contrast, project management is
orientated towards planning and control. 
It is concerned with on-time delivery, within budget expenditures and
appropriate performance standards.

PROJECT
SUCCESS OR FAILURE

            A project has suggested that there
is an orientation towards higher and long-term goals. Important parameters
within the goals will be return on investment, profitability, competition and
market ability. It would imply that the success of a project is dependent on
having:

v  A realistic goal

v  Competition

v  Client satisfaction

v  A definite goal

v  Profitability

v  Market availability

v  The implementation
process

These are
the definitions of a goal and the implementation process. This would indicate
that project management and its techniques are only a subset of the wider
context of the project. Project management plays a role in project success but
that role is affected by many other factors outside the direct control of the
project manager. This would start to explain why projects can succeed or fail
independently of the project management process.

PROJECT
MANAGEMENT SUCCESS OR FAILURE

            The definition of project
management suggests a shorter term and more specific context for success. The
outcomes of project management success are many. They would include the obvious
indicators of completion to budget, satisfying the project schedule, adequate
quality standards, and meeting the project goal. The factors which may cause
the project management to fail to achieve these would include:

Ø  Inadequate basis for
project

Ø  Wrong person as project
management

Ø  Top management
unsupportive

Ø  Inadequately defined
tasks

Ø  Lack of project
management techniques

Ø  Management techniques mis-used

Ø  Project closedown not
planned

Ø  Lack of commitment to
project

        This factors would suggest that
successful project management requires planning with a commitment to complete
the project, careful appointment of a skilled project manager., spending time
to define the project adequately, correctly planning the activities in the
project, ensuring correct and adequate information flows, changing activities
to accommodating employees personal goals with performance and rewards, and
making a fresh start when mistakes in implementation have been identified.

ROLE
OF SUCCESSFUL PROJECT MANAGEMENT

                      The role of successful project
management provides an indicator of project success. A project may still be
successful despite the failings of project management because it meets the
higher and long-term objectives. Project management is purely a subset of the
project as a whole, then it is suggested that the broader decisions in
selecting a suitable project in the first place are more likely to influence
the overall success of the project than can be achieved merely through the
techniques of project management. The techniques may help to ensure a
successful implementation of the project, but if the project is fundamentally
flawed from the start it would be unlikely that techniques alone could salvage
it. The techniques may help to identify the unfeasible nature of the project,
and indicate that it should be abandoned or changed.

                     The concentration on
techniques may be considered as the hard issues in project management. They are
the easily measured and quantified concepts of time and cost. They make a distinction
between project success and the success of project management, bearing in mind
that good project management can contribute towards project success but is
unlikely to be able to prevent failure. They are emphasis that a project can be
a success despite a poor project management performance.

        INDIVIDUAL
RESPONSIBILITIES FOR SUCCESS IN BOTH AREAS

                     Given a clear
distinction between the project and project management it would imply a
requirement for a corresponding distinction between the individuals responsible
for success in both areas. The major factor for the successful implementation
of project management is that the project manager and team become the focal
point of integrative responsibility. The completion of a project requires input
from a variety of groups including the client, the project team, the parent
organization, the producer and the end used. Each party has a role in defining
and determining success. They all have specific tasks and responsibilities that
they must fulfill in order to achieve success. The project team will be
responsible for the planning and control of the use of these resources, consequently
the organization will be interested in the success of the project management
process. The team will be accountable for their use of these resources, and if
they fail to be effective they must expect to give an account for their
actions. There will be an interest in the success of the project as a whole as
well as the project management aspects.

                     The project team will shape
the implementation of the project. It is important for the team to employ the
correct management techniques to ensure that planning, controlling and
communication systems are all in place. Without these systems the co-ordination
and control of all individual and resources within the team is difficult. The
orientation of the project team will be towards the task rather than the
people. This will be particularly true as deadlines for achieving work are
stressed and become paramount in people’s thinking. The commitment is therefore
towards short-term rather than long-term goals.

                     This discussion has
highlighted how the various individual involved in a project will have
different orientations towards the final project outcome. Success will be
viewed differently by each group because their expectations for the project
will vary.

        THE
OVERLAP BETWEEN PROJECT AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT

                      It was suggested earlier that there is an overlap
between project management and projects, in that the former is a subset of the
latter. Yet confusion does exist between the two in practice. The confusion
could have arisen because of three factors:

    
I.           
TIME FRAME

 

Project success is often commented on at the end of
the project management phase. At this time

Knowledge
about the project management success will be known because the budget, schedule
and quality criteria can be measured. Here each of the parties will be able to
compare original data requirements to what is achieved. In terms of quality
standards it could be monitored by the amount of rework or by the degree of
client satisfaction. The long-term indicators will not have been realized yet
and consequently they cannot be measured. Therefore, it is convenient to judge
success at this time by whether the project management criteria have been
satisfied rather than the project criteria. So project management success
becomes synonymous with project success and the two are inseparable.

 

 
II.           
CONFUSION OF OBJECTIVES

 

The objectives of project success and project
management success are often inter-twined. Instead

Of
clearly identifying the two as separate groups they are shown to be a single
homogenous set. Because of this lack of distinction the two set of objectives are
seen to be correlated. Budge is primarily a project management issue, yet
profitability is a project objective.

 

 

III.           
EASE OF MEASUREMENT

 

The objectives within project
management are common across all projects and are easy to measure
quantitatively. These are compliance with budget and schedule. Because of these
readily identifiable measures it is easy to concentrate on project management
and its success rather than the wider context of the project. Many of the
project objectives will tend to be either qualitative or not easily measured in
any objective manner, or longer-term and not measurable immediately. This makes
it convenient to use measures of project management success as a means of
determining overall project success.

 

         CONCLUSION

 

                     This paper has
highlighted the overlap that exits between project and project management and
the confusion that can arise from the common use of these terms. It has also
attempted to highlight how the objectives of a project and project management
are different and how the emphasis of project management is towards achieving
specific and short-term targets compared to the wider aims of a project. The
conclusion is that to make the project management team totally responsible for
success would appear to be inappropriate and that the client should take an
increased interest in the development and use of the project. This would be
accommodated properly in a project evaluation technique that examines not only
the implementation processes but also the economic and financial performance.

                     Finally, one must always bear in mind that successful
project management techniques will contribute to the achievement of projects,
but project management will not stop a project from failing to succeed. The
right project will succeed almost without the success of project management,
but successful project management could enhance its success. Selecting the
right project at the outset and screening out potentially unsuccessful
projects, will be more important to ensuring total project success.