A psychologist in the counseling center interviews a student in crisis who is having suicidal thoughts. As part of the assessment process, the psychologist administers a test designed to evaluate potential suicide risk. Which type of validity is the psychologist relying on in this scenario? statistical validity face validity predictive validity construct validity predictive validity What do the cases described in the text of the 46-year old woman who had hallucinations due to epilepsy and Kathy Buckley, the comedienne and inspirational speaker, have in common?
Both were able to succeed in their occupations without having to spend time in psychiatric hospitals. Both were accurately diagnosed in early childhood as having dual diagnoses. Both were misdiagnosed as having organic depressive reactions. Both were misdiagnosed as having psychological disorders. Both were misdiagnosed as having psychological disorders. William was treated for anxiety related to test-taking. At the end of his therapy, he reported fewer anxiety symptoms and a better ability to manage his fear of failure. Most probably, William’s progress will be viewed as _______ at termination.
clinically significant a partial failure treatment resistant clinically insignificant clinically significant Miguel is a 24-year old married man who was referred by his physician to a psychologist for assessment. In order for the psychologist to release information to Miguel’s doctor, the psychologist would want to ensure that the information is accurate and reviewed by Miguel before it is released. the psychologist would want to clear the release with Miguel’s wife for legal reasons. Miguel would have to provide permission for the release of information to either his wife or his doctor.
Miguel would waive his right to confidentiality since his physician made the original referral and the assessment is part of his medical record. Miguel would have to provide permission for the release of information to either his wife or his doctor. The construction of the 567-item Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) took a novel approach to test construction known as empirical keying. discrimination keying. diagnostic keying. predictive validity keying. empirical keying.
The theoretical orientation of a person conducting a psychological assessment affects the selection of assessment tools but not the interpretation of data resulting from testing. range and scope of the assessment. selection of assessment tools but only for very young children. estimated amount of time the assessment process will take. range and scope of the assessment. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) is a clinician-administered scale that measures a broad range of psychological symptoms. focuses on the patient’s perceptions of his or her progress in treatment. uses 21 items to assess psychological functioning in inpatient populations. is used exclusively with psychiatric patients.
Reasures a broad range of psychological symptoms. A noted leader in the field of assessment, Paul Meehl, argued as early as 1954 that _______ were far more accurate than __________. clinical judgments; statistical predictions statistical predictions; clinical judgments clinical judgments; psychometric scores psychometric scores; statistical predictions statistical predictions; clinical judgments The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) assesses an individual’s ability to set shift, or display flexibility in thinking as the goal of a task changes. As a “frontal lobe test,” it is able to discriminate and detect only subcortical lesions.
A frontal lesion from a nonfrontal lesion in a patient. persons at risk for a seizure disorder. violent versus nonviolent patients. a frontal lesion from a nonfrontal lesion in a patient. Select the statement that is most likely TRUE of dimensional models. They are innately more complex that categorical models. They lead to considerable within-category heterogeneity. They pigeonhole patients into types. They facilitate clinical decision-making more than categorical models do. They are innately more complex that categorical models. Ataque de nervios is a problem common among first-generation college students.
Culture-bound syndrome. a condition found only in young children. disorder lacking empirical support. culture-bound syndrome. Geraldine has completed an IQ test. In reviewing the test results, the psychologist observes that the patient’s Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) is significantly lower than her Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI). Given this information, which of the following tests has the psychologist administered to Geraldine? Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV Luria-Nebraska Intelligence Test Simon Intelligence Test for Adults Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV.
According to your text, the hormone oxytocin may be responsible for our ability to form close relationships recall emotional events. form sensory memories. discriminate physiological sensations. form close relationships A client is diagnosed as having an anxiety disorder using a categorical system of classification. Knowing this, what else might you suspect about this client? The client falls into a single category with no other overlap in other categories. The client’s issues are developmental and rooted in a life-span challenge. There is a 45% chance she also has at least one other disorder.
There is no likelihood of comorbidity. There is a 45% chance she also has at least one other disorder. Diagnostic systems for abnormal behavior are broad and include a library of diagnostic labels. These labels increase understanding of the disorder, facilitate communication, and help the therapist plan the patient’s treatment. identify the psychological causes of abnormal behaviors. help the patient assume responsibility for the disorder. indicate the physiological features of a disorder. help the therapist plan the patient’s treatment.
The Reliable Change Index (RCI) is a measure of the change in a patient’s condition from the beginning to end of therapy. the predicted change in a patient’s behavior compared with that of similar patients. the degree of change in a patient’s condition estimated to be attributable to non-therapeutic factors the degree of change a therapist might expect based on a particular form of treatment. the change in a patient’s condition from the beginning to end of therapy. Compared with a categorical system, a dimensional approach to classification allows all symptoms to be described regardless of cut-off scores. allows all disorders to be classified into discrete, valid categories.
Would be more promising if it decreased interrater reliability. would allow symptoms to be rated cross-culturally. allows all symptoms to be described regardless of cut-off scores. Joe comes to the counseling center with complaints of “overwhelming anxiety” in social situations. After an initial interview, the psychologist asks Joe to complete a homework assignment: identifying the nature of the situations in which he is anxious. He is asked to recall what happens just before he becomes anxious and what happens immediately after he becomes anxious. What would the psychologist be trying to find out about Joe’s anxiety attacks?
The internal, enduring states maintaining the emotional reaction. The negative reinforcers present before the anxiety is experienced. The classically conditioned extinction response that precedes the behavior. The antecedents and consequences of the behavior that are maintaining it. The antecedents and consequences of the behavior that are maintaining it. The intelligence quotient or IQ was originally determined by dividing a child’s chronological age by his mental age. WRONG taking the child’s mental age and dividing it by his chronological age. using the mental age as a gauge of natural intelligence.
Comparing a child’s score with those obtained by peers. taking the child’s mental age and dividing it by his chronological age. Which of the following is an example of an open-ended interview question? “Tell me more about it. ” “Do you have periods of feeling blue or hopeless? ” “How frequently do you miss class? ” “Is your family supportive of your decision to seek treatment? ” “Tell me more about it. ” While beneficial in many ways, classification schemes for mental disorders have been criticized because they may lead to self-fulfilling prophecies on the part of the patient. complicate communication among professionals.
Have not yet moved away from the psychoanalytic perspective. do not assist in treatment planning. may lead to self-fulfilling prophecies on the part of the patient. A construct validity score represents whether two independent practitioners agree on a diagnosis. the degree to which a test accurately assesses a specific concept and not other related concepts. a test’s ability to discriminate a patient who is trying to fake symptoms. the percent of test-takers who show reliable scores on a test measuring an related constructs. the degree to which a test accurately assesses a specific concept and not other related concepts.
Of the many factors influencing the choice of assessment tools, one of the most important factors affecting a clinician’s choice is the length of time it takes to administer an assessment tool. difficulty of scoring a test. availability of computer-scoring services for validity. person’s age and developmental status. person’s age and developmental status. According to the text, a major limitation of the current DSM approach is that not all persons with the exact same diagnosis experience the exact same symptoms. not all persons experience the exact same symptoms at the exact same age.
All people do not accept the underlying etiology of their disorders. all people do not meet all symptoms outlined for a disorder. not all persons with the exact same diagnosis experience the exact same symptoms. William is concerned about appearing “psychologically healthy” when taking a test. Having sensed this patient’s veiled intent during part of the clinical interview, the psychologist decides to use a personality test that might validate his clinical hunch. Which of the following test is the clinician likely to choose? Global Assessment of Functioning Scale Millon Clincal Multiaxial Inventory.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Select the statement that is most likely TRUE of dimensional models. They are innately more complex that categorical models. They lead to considerable within-category heterogeneity. They pigeonhole patients into types. They facilitate clinical decision-making more than categorical models do. They are innately more complex that categorical models. All of the following are psychometric properties of assessment instruments EXCEPT validity reliability standardization replicability replicability 1.
A psychologist is conducting an assessment of a child who appears to have high distractibility in a classroom setting. The psychologist is interested in what happens just before the child is distracted from a task, how the child behaves during the distracted period, and what happens immediately after the task disruption. In assessing the relationship between situational influences and behavior, the psychologist is using a psychoanalytic paradigm. behavioral paradigm. cognitive paradigm. diagnostic paradigm. behavioral paradigm.
From 1952 to the present, the number of diagnostic categories in DSM has approximately remained the same doubled reduced by half. tripled tripled If a psychologist wanted to test the effectiveness of a behavioral intervention for test anxiety, she would most likely choose what sort of assessment? a projective test an unstructured interview an open-ended-sentence completion test a test for the specific symptoms a test for the specific symptoms.
A psychologist might question the concept of “comorbidity” in DSM-IV-TR because it is difficult to determine if there are two distinct disorders present or if what is being observed is a different manifestation of a single disorder. manifestations of different symptoms in a given disorder are rare.
True comorbidity is not generally accepted by most mental health professionals. the concept of comorbidity implies the presence of an underlying medical disorder. it is difficult to determine if there are two distinct disorders present or if what is being observed is a different manifestation of a single disorder. Of all disorders reported in the U. S. the most common are alcohol dependence and anxiety disorders Derek has a fear of elevators. He will always take the stairs rather than experience the anxiety of bein gin a closed space and the risk of plunging to his dealth if the elevator mafunctions.
What is maintaining Derek’s avoidance of elevators? Negative Reinforcement Ataque de nervios is a culture bound syndrome found among Latinos. The notion that social forces play a role with respect to when this type of disorder occurs is supported by the fact that ataque symptoms frequently begin after some form of social disruptoin Juan in a freshman at a local university. He gets up at the same time each day and follows the same pattern: dysfunctional even in not distressful A study in you text addressing the relationship between SES and the likelihood of developing a psychological disorder among children found that children develop psychological disorders at the same rate Dr. Pambros returns abnormal psychology exams.
Juanita, Kevin, and Morgan all receive grades of “c. ” Juanita is gratefull to have passed… The event is essentially neutral Gerry is a night watchman who has worked at the same company for 25 years. He is described as very shy and withdrawn around others. While this behavior is not problematic at work, his relatives find him “weird” and tend to shun him at family gatherings. Despite encouragement by his immediate family to mingle, Gerry hardly speaks to others at these events.
According to the “goodness-of-fit” concept, Gerry’s behavior would A) not be viewed as a problem at family gatherings B) not be viewed as a problem at work but would be viewed as a problem at family gatherings. C) not be viewed as a problem at all. D) only be viewed as a problem if it caused difficulty for his immediate family. not be viewed as a problem at work but would be viewed as a problem at family gatherings In medieval Europe, mental illness was thought to be caused by evil or demonic spirits The term “deviance” implies behaving differently The social learning model of behavioral acquisition proposes that, a person does not actually have to do the behavior to learn it.
Excepto for drug and alcohol abuse, the highest rates of psychological disorders are found among persons with the lowest incomes and least amount of education Darien is 3 years old. He slips off a step, falls, and bruises his knee. Upon picking the crying toddler up, Darien’s mother kisses his knee and gives him and M;M. Magically, Darien’s pain disappears. The phenomenon would be known as the ……………… in psychology. placebo effect.