INTRODUCTIONThe dust, a smoke and harmful gas is

INTRODUCTIONThe air pollution is generally accomplished through pollutants of gases and solid and liquid particles of both organic and inorganic chemical. It is true that air is never pure because some gases such as sulphur dioxide,    carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphide emissions from volcanoes, swamps, dust, salt spray, pollens from plants, etc.., are continuously added to the air by these natural processes. Thus air becomes polluted when its natural composition is distributed either by natural or manmade sources or activities by both.The contamination of air with dust, a smoke and harmful gas is called air pollution.The atmosphere is a gaseous envelope which surrounds the earth from all the sides and the air is a composition of several gases mainly nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and carbon dioxide .Air is very important for all type of biosphere. Even human life is not possible without air because man can survive for a few days without food but   cannot live even for few minutes without air or oxygen. Pollution is a man made problem, mainly of effluent countries. The developed countries have been in a race to exploit every bit of natural resources to convert them into goods for their comfort, and to export them to needy developing world. in doing so, the industrialized countries dump a lot of materials  in their  environment which become polluted .in one  way pollution has been a fact ” exported” to developing countries .             It is practically not possible to enumerate all factors that pollute and degrade the physical and social environment the pollution comes at every step in our life in fact is so pervasive that you cannot get away from it.   SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION:-There are two major sources of air pollution as follow:-1. Natural sources – such as volcanic eruptions, deflations of sand and dust, forest, or wild fires of natural vegetation.2. Man made sources – there are many manmade sources which is causing air pollution such as industries, factories, urbanisation , cement factories, automobile , agriculture  power plants and etcFrom the different sources of air pollutions, a variety of pollutants are released into atmosphere. The principles   air pollutants emitted from these different sources are as follow:(i) Carbon compounds – these are mainly carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide the former released by fossil fuel and latter by automobile exhausts.(ii) Sulphur compounds – these includes SO2   ,H2S and sulphuric acid, mostly released by fossil fuel and the latter by auto mobile exhaust.(iii) Nitrogen oxides- these includes nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen oxide are mostly released by automobiles, power plants and industries.(iv) Ozone- its level may rise in atmosphere due to human activities.(v) Fluorocarbons- this is from industries, insecticides, spray, etc.(vi) Hydrocarbons – these are from industries, insecticides, spray etc.(vii) Metals- these includes chiefly lead, nickel are present in atmosphere and air as solid particles or liquid droplets or gases. They are produced mostly by metallurgical processes, automobiles, sea spray, and etc.          TYPES OF AIR POLLUTION:-        Air pollution is classified on two bases as follow:1. On the basis of type of pollutants, and2. On the basis of types of sources of pollutants.1. On the basis of type of pollutants are further divided into two categories (a) gaseous population (b) particulate air pollutants. 2. On the basis of sources of air pollutions is sub divided into six categories (a) automobile pollution (b) industrial pollution (c) thermal pollution (d) urban pollution (e) rural pollution and (f) nuclear pollution.Generally these approaches are used to describe   the air pollution. There is overlapping among various ways used for this purpose.  METHOD OF DETECTION OF AIR POLLUTION AND ITS MEASUREMENT :-   Air pollution is usually measured by sampling of air by thermal and by electrostatic, sonikin,and impactor and collector . The particulate pollution is examined by the instrument which is called deposit gauge or by Owens dust counters. The thickness of smoke measured by Liegean spheres and fluorides are estimated by colour reactions.   ADVERSE EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION:- Air pollution causes several kind of damage to man, animals, plants, and also on weather, climate, and atmosphere processes.1. Air pollution has a very serious type of pathological effect on man .it causes several type of diseases to man.2. It causes obstruction to vision of pilots and has caused air craft accident.3. Air pollution has damaged both agricultural crops and natural plants and vegetation.4. There has been injury to agricultural live stock, particularly from air bone fluoride and arsenic pollution.5.  Air pollution also effects weather and climate on regional, continental and global bases.6. Air pollution also takes it role of building and other manmade objects such as famous building, monuments and art treasures.7. The increased amount of carbon dioxide in atmosphere cause to increase the temperature of earth. GREEN HOUSE EFFECT it also tends to prevent the long wave radiation from earth .thus it has atmospheric effect. The intensity of RADITION will cause skin cancer.8. The jet engines of supersonic aircraft flying at high attitude release nitrogen oxide which destroys ozone molecules. It has also atmospheric adverse effect it causes ozone hole.   HEALTH EFFECTS DUE TO AIR POLLUTION:-Air pollution cause a great threat to environment. Not only humans but animals, birds, plants all are getting affected. As the aftereffects are slow people are not taking it seriously. It is becoming irreversible day by day. Air pollution has become a worldwide phenomenon. Every other individual is are causing air pollution and are also getting affected by it not only by a local or regional level but by a global level.FOG OR SMOG??:- At regional level its effects can be the change in the visibility of air and also the harmful effects caused by it. Like for example every mornings in winter the visibility decreases due to the Smokey appearance in the air. The people who call it as a fog is not a fog. It is not called fog but smog. Burning of petrol’s, diesels from automobiles and smoke from industries emits lots of harmful particles which are formed due to incomplete combustion of particles like PM, VOCs, CO and nitrogen oxide (NOx) which are very bad for the health. If they are present in lower levels then the pollutants are dispersed equally but if in higher amount the smog gets very concentrated and can Cause a great deal to human beings. Generally hot air remains on the top and cool air remains in the bottom so in summers the hot air rises above so the pollutants also gets cycled but in the winter season due to the inversion in the air of different stratospheres the pollutants get concentrated in the bottom and forms smog.HEALTH EFFECTS DUE TO AIR POLLUTANTS:- It is very dangerous to breathe in smog because the particles called “pollutants” enter into the respiratory system and affect our normal health. Smog contains a particle called ozone. The elevated amount of ozone can cause a great deal to our health, especially to our lungs. Also the carbon monoxide present in the atmosphere cause a great deal to our health. Carbon monoxide diffuses faster in the haemoglobin than oxygen due to which the depletion in the transportation of the oxygen in the cells occurs. The high amount of oxygen can also cause someone’s death. The effects of the smog in the body include    Coughing and the infection of throat. High levels of ozone can irritate the respiratory system which can last for hours and can also harm our lungs slowlyIt can worsen the asthma problems and can trigger the asthma attacksEven a normal, healthy and fit human beings will find it harder to breathe and can detoriate our lungs.It affects very differently to every other individual. Like the small children and the senior citizens will get more affected by this. Therefore the children’s and the senior citizens are advised to be careful on the smoggy days especially in the morning and wear masks to prevent the particles enter in our nostrils. Delhi, the place where we are living right now is facing a huge problems due to this. The air quality index ranges from 0 to 300 and even the AQI is 150 then it is considered very unhealthy. The AQI in Delhi is ranging from 200-300 which is very harmful all the citizens residing in Delhi.The pollutants present in the air because of air pollution can cause acute illness and even death of the human beings and the organisms. Although the process is slow and may take decades to appear but are very harmful. The first site where it affects in the human body is the respiratory system.Bronchitis, emphysema, asthma lung cancer are some of the diseases that are caused due to air pollution. Some pollutants in the atmosphere comes in the class of carcinogens (substances which can cause cancer). The rate is higher in the urban areas.The effect of pollution made by human is not only faced by humans but plants animals and the whole atmosphere. The animals are also facing a bit of similar kind of diseases like human do. The difference is we have house and the presence of air purifiers these days are helping us but the animals live in a explicit environment. So the only option for them is to live and survive in the explicit environment and face the consequences of the effects of the harsh environment. Among the metallic pollutants lead, molybdenum are very harsh. Also fluorosis is caused in animals due to the fluoride present in the atmosphere.According to the survey the livestock in North America is poisoned due to the fluorides, lead etc. the total amount loos caused by the air pollution in USA is 1 to 2 billion dollars. Sulphur dioxide is the main cause that is affecting the Poland right now. The cells in plants gets inactive due to the deposition of plants causing in tissue collapse and drying of leaves. The most affected plants are cotton, wheat, barley and apple.We all know these terms “GREEN HOUSE EFFECT”, “OZONE LAYER”. Air pollution also has a equal hand in these problems. As the carbon dioxide is increasing the temperature is rising which is causing greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, melting of ice which is causing an extinction of many animals and also causing skin cancer in humans.We all know about TAJMAHAL. The smoke, grit, dust and oxides in the air are causing air to change the colour of Taj mahal. It was started in 1972 when an oil refinery was opened near Agra which became a major issue. Sulphur dioxide is one of the main reasons why the marbles are getting oxidised causing of changing the colour of Tajmahal.If we talk about pollutants, the different pollutants that is causing the threat to health effects in human areSulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, ozone, benzene, lead etc.HEALTH EFFECTS DUE TO NITROGEN DIOXIDEThe oxides of nitrogen is very harmful which can enter in the respiratory system through breathing. If the oxides go into the body in higher amount then it may increase the susceptibility of the pathogen which are related to respiration. It can also cause the risk of diseases like bronchitis, emphysema, cystic fibrosis, and bronchopneumonia and also decrease in the lung functions. It was observed that exposure on NO2 as low as 0.1ppm can cause this diseases and also respiratory diseases in childrenHEALTH EFFECTS DUE TO CARBONMONOXIDEAs it has been discussed earlier that carbon monoxide diffuses faster than oxygen. Therefore instead of oxygen blood will take up the carbon monoxide to form carboxy haemoglobin. The affinity of carbon monoxide in haemoglobin is 240 times than oxygen. Therefore cells will be getting carbon monoxide instead of oxygen and may cause the death of the human beings. It also affects the lung tissue and may affect the functions of lungs. The effects may be also seen in the heart and it can increase the risk of a person of getting heart attack due to insufficient oxygen to all cells. Diseases also include atherosclerosis, hypertension etc.The infants and the children are also affected by it. Decrease in birth weight, delay in the mental development and poisoning in kindey, bone immune capacity are some of the effects seen in the infants and the childrenHEALTH EFFECTS OF OZONEOzone is present bin the upper layer of the atmosphere and is helping usby protecting us the harmful UV rays of the sun. if the ozone reaches in the lower atmosphere and in a greater amount then it may cause various health effectsThe first effects that can be seen by elevated ozone are eye, chest discomfort, headache, cough, throat irritation etc.Ozone being a respiratory irritant reacts rapidly with tissues lining of the airway of the lungs. If an individual is exposed in higher amount of ozone even for 3-4 hours it can cause lung inflammation and may cause acute chronic health effects had also susceptibility to pulmonary bacterial infections can cause to pulmonary bacterial infections. It may also effect immune systemHEALTH EFFECTS DUE TO LEADOnce Maggi from the nestle company has been banned due to the presence of lead in higher amount. It has been found that the lead has very bad effects on the human brain. It is how bad the lead is for the human beings. Lead is that kind of poison which not om=only effects the brain and the respiratory system but it can also damage the kidneys, the reproductive system, the nervous system, and can also cause high blood pressure. Children are more prone to the effects caused by the lean because lead is diffused in the children’s body faster than adults.  In children the symptoms include lack of intelligence, behavioural problems, decrease ability to concentrate and learning effects of the children because it directly effects the brain. If the level of the lead is very high then the person can also go to coma and death too.Lead is also harmful for the women because lead is stored in the bones for a very long time and can release when the body needs calcium. So for the pregnant women in can be fatal to the infant because it can cause the barrier of the placanta and can cause harm to the infants growth.HEALTH EFFECTS DUE TO BENZENEBenzene is known to increase the carcinogenicity and also the risk in human because of the ambient air. According to various studies scientists have found the link of benzene in chromosomal aberration, genetic change etc. benzene is also classified as carcinogenic according to IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). It is been linked to increase the frequency of cancer in human.Exposure of this substance benzene in high level is linked to cause cancer in kidneys, testis, stomach, pancreas, and respiratory tract bladder and also uterus. Prolong exposure of benzene even in the high amount is linked to irregular heartbeat, headache, nausea, dizziness, unconsciousness and difficulty in sleeping which can cause stress in human being.The benzene also acts as leukaemogen in human beings acting as an etiologic agent leading to acute myelogenous leukaemiaHEALTH EFFECTS DUE TO PARTICULATE MATTERThe particulate matter can even cause external effects like effects direct on the skin like the blackening ion the skin surface. However particulate matter having a very very small size can enter inside the human body and any become a systemic poison. However the effects are dependent on the size of the particles, solubility of the particles, the penetration time of the particles, the deposition etc.Very very fine particulate matter can cause irritation of the bronchospasm, pulmonary oedema, allergies and the particulate matter in higher quantity can cause lung disease. The acute effect f the particulate matter may cause the running of the nose, dry cough, wet cough, head cold, hay fever, fever, burning of red eyesHEALTH EFFECTS DUE TO SULPHUR DIOXIDEThe chronically effects of the sulphur dioxide in the human include cough, headache, shortness of breath, bronchitis, cold and fatigue. Most of the SO2 in the atmosphere is converted to sulphate salts, which are removed by sedimentation or by washout along with precipitation thereby making rain water acidic due to sulphuric acid formation and causing the effect to human health