Introduction all around the world, some people


population of the earth has grown up to around 7.5 billion today, which is the triple
that it was 67 years ago. Even the growth rate of population slows down, there
are still 18.6 newborns per 1000 people on average as United Nations post in
2015. As Holt (1998) noted that explosive population growth threatens the
world’s resources, the environment, economic development, and social stability.
After different degrees of these impacts reveal all around the world, some people
start to concern what Malthus alarmed us 200 years ago again and realized that
population problems like food shortage, environmental problems and the aging of
the population are influencing every one of us now.

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For under-developed countries

the population growing all around the world, to some extent, the problems it
brings trouble under-developed countries more which do not have as good social
welfare as developed countries. According to Moffett (1995), 95 percent of all
population growth takes place in developing countries, however, they have only
15 percent of the world’s gross product, a fraction of its scientists, and
virtually all its abject poor. The first and the biggest problem to them is the
food. According to estimates published by FAO, world hunger reached a historic
high in 2009 with 1020 million people going hungry every day. It is absurd that
even we created an over-abundance of food today, there are still about 1
billion people who have to bear starvation in their daily lives, especially in
the under-developed countries. In order to solve this problem, people in these
countries have to make more food. However, some reckless, unscientific ways
will result in more serious problems like soil erosion, salinization, the
depletion of aquifers and over-gazing as Global Food and Farming Features
listed. It will be a vicious circle that people have to occupy other
uncultivated lands to make up the losses of farmland and ultimately with no more
land to use.

from the food shortage, the environmental problems also afflict under-developed
countries. It mainly contains two points: ecological failure and environmental
pollution. According to Attenborough (2011), the
space we get for living, a little might be taken from land occupied by other
people but most of it could only come from the land which, for millions of
years, animals and plants had had to themselves—the natural world. It indicates
that if we take up too much the limited space for additional population, the
diversity of species will be damaged because of the reduction of habitat. As a
matter of a fact, these charismatic animals have already begun to disappear.
The Arabian oryx had been reduce to a few, a kind of goose in Hawaii that once
lived around the great volcanoes had reduced to 50, the strange rhinoceros that
live in the dwindling forests of Java to about 40 as Attenborough (2011)
mentioned in his essay. Their survivals are all in urgency. On top of that, due
to the increasing population, the environmental pollution is becoming more
serious. Taking air pollution as an example, according to the data given out by
United Nations in 2015, the
average annual change in total carbon dioxide emissions between 2005 to 2010 is
2.43 percent, which is more than twice of the population growth rate. The
global warming, which is the most well-known environmental problem is caused by
the exhaust of excessive carbon dioxide. Since most under-developed countries
do not have sufficient fund and advanced technology, they have no way but let
it go worse.


For developed countries

is undeniable that better social welfare makes developed countries’ citizens
barely troubled by food shortage problems, also they have already gotten
through the period which they must to struggle against environmental problems. However,
population problem is a global problem, even they cannot be an exception. Just
as Holt (1998) suggested, low birth rates in industrialized countries and high
birth rates in the third world produce distortions in the age distribution of
the respective populations. It shows the most serious problem that almost every
developed country like Japan, Britain and some other Nordic countries have to
face now—the aging of population. With the great progress in medical
technology these years, people live longer than before. However, at the same
time, a large amount of families today choose to be the DINKS which stands for
Dual Income No Kids. Just as Phillips (2006) has noted that although women
still want children, they are putting off becoming mothers because of the
professional and financial penalties. Also among middle-class women, the
downside of having children is very large. It is not only that they stand to
lose a huge amount of money but also their responsibility-free lifestyles. As a
result, manpower shortage and financial burden of government will get into
worsening problems. It is impossible to be balanced that fewer people produce
goods, services and taxes to support the elderly, let alone some of the young
people also have children to feed. That is why countries like France provides a
lot inducement like generous child allowances and a calibrated income tax
system to their citizens to have more children.



in all, population problem is a global problem with no exception. It is not a
simply or single problem but depends on the national conditions of each
country, just like food shortage and environmental problems in under-developed
countries and population aging in developed countries. Nobody can deny that we
do have a population problem and it urgently needs to be solved.