Bio-fertilizer is a substance which contains live or
latent cells of micro-organisms which are applied to seeds or plants or soils
to fix different nutrients and make available to the plant. There are different
types of bio fertilizers used like Azatobactor, Acetobactor, Azospirrilum, PSb,
Rhizobiums are symbiotic bacteria that fix
atmospheric N gas in plant root nodules and have a mutually helpful
relationship with their host plants. The plant roots supply essential minerals
and newly synthesized substances to the bacteria.
It is free
living and non-symbiotic nitrogen fixing organism that also produces certain
substances good for the growth of plants and antibodies that suppress many root
pathogens. Azotobacter can also produce antifungal compounds to fight against
many plant pathogens.
This is also a nitrogen-fixing micro organism
beneficial for non-leguminous plants. Azospirillum transcend nitrogen
enrichment through production of growth promoting substances.
Under acidic or calcareous soil conditions, large
amounts of phosphorus are fixed in the soil but are unavailable to the plants.
Phosphobacterins can make insoluble phosphorus available to the plant.
arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM)
VAM fungi infect and spread inside the root. They
possess special structures known as vesicles and arbuscules. The plant roots
transmit substances to the fungi, and the fungi aid in transmittin gnutrients
and water to the plant roots.
Bio-Fertilizer in India
Major Companies In Bio-Fertilizer Business
of Baramati Taluka
The total geographical
area (TGA) of Baramati tahsil is 1382 sq. km., which is about 8.80 percent of
TGA of the Pune district. The population of
Baramati as per the census of 2011 is 54,415. among them about 28 thousand
(51%) are male and about 27 thousand (49%) are female.
population of baramati is mostly depend on the agriculture for the major income
source. The land of the baramati region is well irrigated because of the Nira
left canal, Nira river and karhamai river.
major crops grown in the area are Sugarcane. Jowar, Wheat, Maize, Grapes and
Pomegranate. Among this Sugarcane is the major crop because there are three
sugar factories namely Chatrapati sugar factory in Bhavani-Nagar, Malegaon
Co-op sugar factory Malegaon and Someshwar sugar Factory someshwarNagar.
with that due to the presence of KVK near baramati is helping a farmer through
various new technologies and solutions which is the great contributor in the
agricultural development of Baramati .
Name of Crop
List of Villages in Baramati Tehsil
Review of Literature
Naidu et al. (2002) recorded the influence of
organic manures, chemical and biofertilizers on growth, yield and economics of
brinjal. They observed that organic manure when applied in conjunction with
Azospirillum yielded greater number of fruits with higher girth over nitrogen
with organic manure.
It is due to
better mobilization of plant nutrients particularly N and P during later stage
of plant growth. It was also noticed that application of organic manure in
combination with Azospirillum yielded at par with N from organic manure.
Sharma (2002) studied the effect of Azospirillum and
different doses of nitrogen on yield of cabbage. The treatments included 3
levels of biofertilizers and 4 levels of nitrogen. Azospirillum application
significantly increased the number and weight of non-wrapper leaves per plant,
head length and width, gross and net weight of head per plant and yield/ha. A
treatment combination of Azospirillum application with 60 kg N/ha resulted in
maximum yields/ha with benefit : cost ratio 2.9.
In a study conducted by Devi et al. (2003) on
cabbage, it was revealed among the various treatments including application of
poultry manure and biofertilizers with Azospirillum brassilense could save 25
per cent nitrogen where cost benefit ratio was 1:4.30.
Gupta and Samnotra (2004) reported 25 per cent
reduction in nitrogen application when Azotobacter and Azospirillum were used
as the organic source of nitrogen in cabbage.
Due to excess use of chemical
fertilizers the lands are degrading day by day.
Environment is getting affected due to
use of chemical fertilizers
So there is need of find out the
challenges and opportunities for use of Bio-fertilizers.
To find out how many farmers are using
To study farmers awareness about
To find out the challenges for use of
Bio-fertilizers in Baramati Region
What are the opportunities for
Biofertilizer in the study area
of the Study
Green Revolution in India the agricultural production booms at a very high rate
due to the use of chemical fertilizers and new varieties. From that time the
whole India diverted to the use of chemicals in agriculture and it benefitted a
lot, but it showing the negative impact of that in current situation on
productivity of land, Degradation of land, Quality of produce etc.
But the dependence of
agriculture on chemical uses will harm the agriculture to a greater extent and
loss the soil quality.
For that the Government
of India promoting the use of Bio-fertilizers in agriculture. These
Bio-fertilizers have multiple benefits on the soil and it is also easy to use
and cheaper in price.
are naturally occurring in nature and used 100 years ago as a naturally
occurring manure, In ancient times farmers were using but they don’t know the
composition but they use to apply in field and they known its benefits.
But in recent years the
agriculture is went towards chemicals which are synthetic and prepared in the
chemical laboratories, it increased a yield but in recent 10 years it is
showing negative impact on different factors like soil, environment, human
health, animal health and on future
Due to that the farmers
are again interested in Bio-fertilizers as a option for synthetic chemical
The study includes the
farmers survey against the Awareness, use, problems in Bio-fertilizers use was
carried out in Month of December 2017.
The topic was selected
with the discussion with mentor with the some objectives. Objectives of survey
are to find the awareness and use of Bio-fertilizers in the Baramati region.
Sources of Data
Primary and Secondary
data is collected to meet the specified objectives of the research
Primary data were
collected from the farmers of different villages with the help of Questionnaire.
The questions like Land holding, Crops grown, Bio-fertilizers using or not,
reasons for not using of
Bio-fertilizers, which Bio-fertilizers used, Reasons, Benefits of
Bio-fertilizer using, Awareness of Bio-fertilizers etc.
And also asked for their suggestions on
Bio-fertilizers and what needs to be done to improve the use of
Secondary data about
Bio-fertilizers were collected from different websites, government websites,
pages and research papers to know the sector very well and to see the what happened in the recent years.
For the research
Baramati region has been selected and from Baramati taluka 10 villages has been
selected and from each village 15 farmers were selected randomly for the study.
From the Baramati
region randomly 10 villages has been selected and from each village 15 farmers
selected on random basis.
So total sample size is
150 farmers for the study as a representative sample.
questionnaire were prepared with the help of faculty mentor to record the
information given by the farmers . Questionnaire was filled by myself as per
information given by the farmers.
Tools used for Analysis
for entry of Data
Use of different
charts and bars to show the results.
In baramati region near
about 80% land under the use of chemical fertilizers and remaining 20% is under
the use of Bio-fertilizers.
Land Holding of Farmers
The graph shows that the
maximum farmers having land holding of small (less than 1 Ha) i.e. 55%
45% farmers having
medium land holding i.e.2-5 Ha.
The land holding is
more per farmer in the baramati region due to the very well irrigation
facilities, market availability, due to this farmers having more land holding.
These large farmers are come under the innovators in rogers model so these
farmers can use Bio-fertilizers in the future.
Users and Non-users of Biofertilizers
It shows that there are
only 23% farmers are using Bio-fertilizers which are medium and large farmers.
And 77% farmers are not
using Bio-fertilizers because of many reasons like non awareness, Availability
But there are good
opportunities for fertilizer companies to cater to this segment.
Which Companies Bio-fertilizers Using
In baramati region
maximum farmers using the Bio-fertilizers of KVK Baramati because the maximum
awareness made by them and every farmer is connected with KVK.
The other companies
having very little share in Bio-fertilizers.
Baramati KVK is
providing guidance along with Bio-fertilizers that’s why the farmers are more
using the KVK given products .
Reasons for Using Biofertilizers
Many farmers are using the
Bio-fertilizers because of the high yield they are getting by using
Bio-fertilizers, some farmers are using because they are getting at lower
prices than the chemical fertilizers, some are using because it is convenient
in using and many farmers has given the other minor reasons
When they use
Bio-fertilizers the Bio-fertilizer fixes the atmospheric nitrogen, fixes the
phosphate with minimum cost and increases yield upto 30%.
Due to this 15% farmers
are using because of higher yield.
Major crops in which Bio-fertilizers are used
In baramati region
major Bio-fertilizer use is in the Sugarcane crop due to maximum farmers are
growing the sugarcane and it is showing good results in the sugarcane crop.
Second most use in the
pomegranate and on small scale use in the jowar, maize and grapes.
Awareness of Bio-fertilizers
In baramati region
awareness of Bio-fertilizers is 63%. Still there 37% farmers are unaware about Bio-fertilizers.
Because many farmers
are Illiterate , they don’t have access to new technologies or practices coming
So in this region need
of conducting awareness campaigns.
How farmers get Aware of Bio-fertilizers
In this region major
awareness made by the KVK Baramati, Biggest contribution in the Biofertilizer
is made by the KVK Baramati.
In some amount dealers
and co farmers are making awareness among the fellow farmers.
It is showing that KVK
is working very well in Bio-fertilizer sector
Reasons for not using Bio-fertilizer
There are many reasons
among the farmers for not using of Biofertilizers.
The main reason is
availability in the nearby areas with the dealers . If the Bio-fertilizers are
available with the near dealers farmers are ready to use it.
Another major problems
are No awareness among the farmers and some farmers are saying it is not giving
And few farmers are
saying the prices of Bio-fertilizers are very high and it is not giving results
up to the mark.
Summary and Conclusion
In this region near
about 40% farmers having Medium and Large land holding (2-5 Ha and More than 5
Ha), It shows that there is greater opportunity for development of Bio-fertilizers
business in this region.
In this area only 23%
of farmers using the Bio-fertilizers on their field, and the main reason for
the non using is Lack of awareness, Unavailability in near by dealer store etc.
Out of the farmer who
are using maximum farmers are saying that they are using because of the good
results and less price
Some figures are very
surprising like awareness of bio-fertilizers, 63% farmers are not aware about
the bio-fertilizers use and its advantages.
The major share in
Biofertilizer use is of the sugarcane growing farmers,
The Bio-fertilizers of
the KVK Baramati are the most used Bio-fertilizers in this area because of
availability and guidance given by the KVK Baramati.
The many farmers are
not get convinced about the advantages of Bio-fertilizers, their perception about
Bio-fertilizers is that it acts very slowly and not give the good results .