In summary,
cancer immunotherapy is a promising weapon that exploits the immune system to
fight the disease and has been established as an additional approach to
traditional therapies. It has managed to improve remarkably anticancer
responses, increasing the survival rate and decreasing the adverse events,
while it seems to be capable of attacking cancer stem cells, believed to
constitute the core of tumor formation28,29.  

numerous studies have revealed that only some groups of patients are able to
respond efficiently to immune based treatments. Thus, it is essential that new biomarkers
be identified in order for a potential response to treatment to be predicted,
preventing people from toxicity manifestations due to the therapy and the cost
of non-favorable treatments2. In this way, a personalized approach can
be pursued in the treatment of cancer, by sequencing a patient’s cancer genome
so that mutated genes will be discerned and each mutation can be potentially
used as a predictive biomarker that will define the most suitable therapy. Besides
this, regarding to patients who tend to relapse after response to immunotherapy,
a deep knowledge of the mechanisms that may cause resistance to immunotherapy
is required, in order to eliminate this major limitation.

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Finally, the
main interest of many studies focuses on the development of rational approaches
to applying combinatorial methods, so as immunotherapy can benefit a greater
amount of patients. More precisely, different immunotherapies can be combined
with each other or with traditional therapies, including chemotherapy and
radiotherapy, as they seem to provide significantly improved responses. Despite
the fact that the pathway leading to successful fight against cancer comprises various
obstacles, the future seems bright as impressive scientific breakthroughs, such
as genomics and proteomics, are constantly contributing to the comprehension of
tumor mechanisms and the development of novel approaches.