In employment category, one out of four employees

In over 150
countries, the average use of temporary employees in registered private sector
firms is 11 percent, with about one-third of countries around this mean. There
are wide divergences in the use of temporary employment, however, ranging from
under 5 percent in Jordan, Latvia, Norway and Sierra Leone to over 25 percent
in Mongolia, Peru and Spain. There are also considerable divergences in its use
by firms: more than half of enterprises do not use temporary labour, whereas
around 7 percent use it intensively (more than half of their workforce is on
temporary contracts).While women make up less than 40 percent of total wage
employment, they represent 57 percent of part-time employees. Many women work part-time as it allows them to combine paid
work with domestic and care responsibilities. In countries such as Argentina,
Germany, India, Japan, the Netherlands, Niger and Switzerland, there is more
than a 25 percentage point difference in women’s participation as part-time
employees when compared to men.


Casual employment
is a prominent feature of labour markets in developing countries and has grown in importance in industrialised countries.
In Bangladesh and India, nearly two-thirds of wage employment is casual; in
Mali and Zimbabwe, one in three employees is casual. In Australia, where casual
employment is a specific employment category, one out of four employees is
casual. In industrialised countries, the diversification of part-time work into
“very short hours” or “on-call” work, including “zero-hours”
contracts (with no guaranteed minimum hours), has parallels with casual work in
developing countries. In the United Kingdom, 2.5 percent of employees were on
zero-hours contracts at the end of 2015. Approximately 10 percent of the
workforce in the United States have irregular and on-call work schedules, with
the lowest-income workers the most affected. Data on temporary agency work
(TAW) and other contractual relationships involving multiple parties are
scarce. In countries with available data, TAW spans from 1 to over 6 percent of
wage employment. Asian countries have witnessed the growth of various forms of
dispatched, agency, subcontracted or outsourced work throughout the past
decades. In Indian manufacturing, contract labour reached 34.7 percent in
2011–12, up from negligible levels in the early 1970s.

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