In was a need for continuous development

In recent years, there have been many concerns about the presence
of steroid hormones in edible matrices, covering a wide range of physical types
of matrix, from muscle and organ (liver and kidney) tissue to fat and milk.
Consequently, there was a need for continuous development of improved
multi-residue, multimatrix and multi-technique analytical methods. First of
all, these methods must be sensitive enough to cover not only the legislative
limits but also allow the determination of banned, forbidden or unknown
compounds following misuse or unintentional use that may lead to residues in
matrices of animal origin. Secondly, the determination of residues in matrices
of animal origin requires the development of extraction and clean-up methods
prior to detection. This is due to the matrix complexity and the low
concentrations (ng up to g kg?1) that should be detected. Urine, manure and
hair are mostly used to monitor the illegal use of steroid hormones because
they are available before slaughtering. After slaughtering, liver, kidney, fat
or muscle tissues are collected. Consumable parts of the animal like liver,
kidney and muscle tissue are the target tissues for residue analysis. Moreover,
steroid hormones are lipophilic compounds and as such they may accumulate in
fat; progestagens are known for this particular property. Commonly, kidney fat
is taken at slaughterhouse level because it is the easiest matrix to take and
thereby the lowest detrimental for the carcass. Based on the available
literature, with emphasis on multiresidue methods for steroids in meat, a
number of analytical methods have been developed and are described. Fewer
methods are described for kidney fat, kidney, liver and milk. DeBrabander et
al. has extensively reviewed the possibilities of mass spectrometry in the
determination of residues of banned substances (amongst other things EGAs and
cortisosteroids) in matrices of meat-producing animals.