In amounts of organochlorines are cause inhibition of

In
the recent years the US Environmental protection Agency and the EU classified
endosulfan as “highly hazardous”, while the world health organisation
classifies it as Class II “moderately hazardous”. Acute exposure to high levels
of endosulfan is known to cause poisoning and even death in humans (Usha and
Harikrishnan, 2005). Adverse and severe health effects on exposure to
endosulfan have been reported in communities in several countries including
India, South East Asia, Southern pacific and Sub-Saharan Africa (UNEP-GEF,
2002; UNEP-GEF, 2002a). A recent investigation on the long-term use of
endosulfan in a cashew plantation district in India reported severe health
problems and residual contamination in the area (Vankar et al., 2001).
It is a GABA gated chloride channel antagonist, inhibitors of Na+/ K+
and Ca2+ / Mg2+ ATPase, these enzymes are essential for
transport of ion across the membrane. The residual amounts of organochlorines
are cause inhibition of acetyl cholinterase activity in the target tissues and
effect Na+/ K+ ATPase, Ca2+ / Mg2+
ATPase activity of cells (Naqvi and Vaishnavi, 1993).

Toxicity
assay was performed to study the inhibition of growth and development and also
determine sub lethal concentrations of endosulfan, alpha endosulfan and beta
endosulfan. Inhibition of development was studied by founding percentage of
hatchability, pupation rate and emergence of the model organisms. Pre mature
aging of organisms has been implicated by the alteration in the expression of
regulation of a no. of genes con current with factor like xenobiotic exposure,
dietary habits etc. Heat shock proteins (hsp) are reported to function as
chaperons by orchestrating correct folding and unfolding of proteins. Hsp can
counter act proteo toxicity and favour stress resistance to the organisms which
may be casually linked to an increase in life span but it undergo functional
decline (Tower 2009, 2011).

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Endosulfans
elicit oxidative stress by generation of free radicals and induce tissue lipid
peroxidation in mammals and other organisms (Comele koylu et al., 2000). An
organism experiences xenobiotic stress following to endosulfan exposure. Stress
production is one of the primary protective responses of an organism by
induction of specific set of stress genes called as heat shock genes whose
products are called stress proteins (heat shock proteins). During pesticide
intoxication free radicals can be changes in protein components of cells on the
protein profile. Synthesis and degradation of proteins are sensitive over a
wide range of conditions and show different physical and chemical
modulators.  The biological alterations
observed in an animal under chemical stress can be correlated with the
structural and functional changes of cellular proteins. Proteins hold the
unique position in the modulators of cells because of the proteinaceuos nature
of all the enzymes which mediate at various metabolic pathways. (Lehninger
2008, Harper 2006).