ICR reasonable period of time (Johnson, 2012).

ICR strain

            Animal models, such as mice and
rats, are essential tools in scientific researches such as development of
medical and veterinary discoveries. People started using different animal
models since the discovery of science itself. However, the usage of animals in
research differs in different views of individuals. Even so, it is undeniable
that animal-based researches has been part of every medical discovery for more
than hundreds of years. Because of this, there is a rapid technological advances
and animal studies remains a need for scientific researches today and even in

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            The most commonly used laboratory
animal models are rats and mice. According to the Foundation for Biomedical
Research (FBR), 95% of all laboratory animals are mice and rats. Researchers and
scientists prefer rodents since they are small, easily housed and maintained,
and can adapt well to new surroundings. They reproduce quickly and have a short
life span of two to three years (Melina, 2010), which enables
researchers to have several generations of offsprings within a reasonable
period of time (Johnson, 2012). And also rodents
are relatively inexpensive compared to other animal models such as rabbits,
cats, or dogs and it can be bought in large quantities from commercial
producers. Most mice and rats used in a clinical trial is of the same strain or
breed, for they are somewhat genetically identical, the only difference is the
genders. Another reason is that according to a website article, humans and mice
share almost 95% of genes which made them an effective model for the human body
(Undersatanding Animal Research, 2017) and is appropriate
for use to answer many research questions said Jenny Haliski, a representative
for the National Institute of Health (HIH) Office of the Laboratory Animal
Welfare. Majority of the commonly used mice in laboratories are albino. This is
due to a common mutation in tyrosinase gene. In which tyrosinase is one of the
key enzymes in mammalian melanin synthesis (Ramsden & Riley, 2014).

ICR strain,
an albino, is a mouse model of Swiss origin and descended from the original two
male and seven female albino non-inbred mice (Research Models and Services, n.d.). This outbred strain
was named after the Institute of Cancer Research in the USA. The mice strain has
a docile nature, excellent reproductive and maternal instincts, rapid growth
rate and low incidence of spontaneous tumor (Research Models and Services, n.d.). Hlywka et al.
(2013) used both male and female ICR mice to determine the effects of arruva,
an R, R-monatin salt isomer in a repeated 90-day oral toxicity study. Another study
conducted by Seto et al (2012) used two-week-old ICR mice to determine the
causative agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) which later leads
to pulmonary disease in laboratory mice. In cancer research using ICR mice,
Moon et al. (2014) conducted a sub-acute toxicity study with repetitive
intramuscular injection of cervical cancer vaccines on female ICR mice. In which,
the female ICR mice exposed to cervical cancer vaccines did not show any toxic
response.  ICR strain mice can be used in
almost all types of researches – oncology, immunology, toxicology, neurology,
etc. However, ICR mice that comes from different sources may also give rise to
different or even contradictory results.


Hematological and Biochemical Parameters

            Hematology is a branch of medicine
involving the study and treatment of the blood. Blood is a fluid that sustains
life. It is composed of different components that made up the blood – plasma,
red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets

            Hematological parameters have been
historically helpful in the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of many
infectious diseases and cancers (Kone, et al., 2017). The widely used
clinical indicators of health and disease the red and white blood cell counts
and hemoglobin concentrations which establishes the hematological parameters (Kelada, et al., 2012). It is a good
indicators of the physiological condition of animals and the environment they
live. Laboratory tests conducted on blood are very important since it detects
the deviation between normal and what is not. Thus, provides information for
the diagnosis and prognosis of the disease (Etim, Williams, Akpabio, & Offiong, 2014). Packed cell volume
is the portion of the whole blood volume occupied by erythrocytes.  Low level of PCV means reduced number of cells
in the blood. RBC and WBC count is used to measure the number of red blood
cells and white blood cells in a portion of blood. An increase in WBC count may
be in relation to infections, inflammations, leukemia, cancer, hence, when it
decreases it might cause some autoimmune conditions, viral or severe infections
and bone marrow enlargement. An increase in RBC count might be caused by fluid
loss due to diarrhea, dehydration, and burns; however, a decrease in RBC count
could cause anemia. On the other hand, hemoglobin is a pigment part of the
erythrocyte, and an oxygen-carrying part of the blood has the same effect with
an increased and decreased effect of RBC count (Merritt, Staros, & Curry, 2014).