Hydroelectric been exist and began operated at

Hydroelectric power is a kind of renewable
energy and have a very old history. The world first hydroelectric power plant has
been exist and began operated at September 30, 1882 on the fox river in
Appleton, Wisconsin. The electricity that generate in the world got about 20%
came from Hydroelectric power and it hold the largest share of worldwide
electric production. Hydroelectric power is basically convert the natural
forces such as flowing water in river or waterfall into electricity. It is
clean and sustainable for future power usage. Hydroelectric power plant usually
build on dam due to dam can store much of water and can reconstruct the
environment of the downstream. Besides, the dam can control the flow rate of
water and prevent flood at the downstream of dam. According to the institute
energy research, the renewable energy has taken over about 9.9% of all energy
consumed in the United State of America in 2015. But in this 9.9% or renewable
energy, hydroelectric power has taken over about 25% which in the biggest and
most popular renewable energy source in United State of America in 2015. The
reason that cause hydroelectric power become one of the popular renewable power
source is that the process that convert natural forces into electricity doesn’t
need any sources which will cause pollution to the environment such as oil,
coal and natural gas. Which means that, hydroelectric power plant does not
create any pollution components such as carbon dioxide or nitrogen dioxide to
the environment. This may not seem like a significant change, but the lesser
the pollution components produce can be correspond to enormous changes to the
environment. Next, the conventional hydroelectric technology about 90% which is
highly efficiency.


According to the US Department of energy, the
hydroelectric power is the fourth cheap energy sources. Although the cost to
build a hydroelectric power plant is high but it has a low operating cost and
long lasting. The hydroelectric power plant can be operated automatically in
condition without people. In order to build a hydroelectric power plant, the
height of water in the dam has decided how much the potential power to generate
electricity. The higher the dam build, the more potential energy in water. The
higher position of water enables the water moved downward effortlessly. In the
structure of a hydroelectric power plant, the water flow through the gate and
flow through the penstock which is control by the gates. The water flow through
the penstock will control the total amount of electricity generated in the
hydroelectric power plant. The potential and kinetics of water will be
converted into rotational motion when the water push the blades of the turbine.
When the shaft is rotate, the coil inside the generator will be rotate too and
produce the electricity because the rotation of the shaft inside the generator will
produces magnetic field that using electromagnetic field induction converted
into electricity.

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According standard 4247-1,
generally can be defined as two main point which are additional provision
relating to drainage and precaution for underground power station and provision
to meet emergency condition for drainage. In the standard 5496, some changes are
added in standard 5496 which are the width of each pipe are recommended as
1000mm and depth of Kaplan & Francis turbine recommended has been
increased. In conclusion, although many hydroelectric power plant are construct
in worldwide but many of them are small and not so efficiency compare with big
hydroelectric power plant. New big hydroelectric power plant are necessary to
be construct in worldwide to replace the un-renewable energy.