The ICD as a body has been in charge of classifications of diseases and disorders. The general system which has been developed with time can be used to uniquely classify a condition by the use of a code than can be of up to six characters long. The APA’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is an alternative coding system used for psychiatric cases within and without the US. , development of DSM has led to its adoption especially in areas of research outside the US while the use of ICD coding system has remained relevant to almost all clinical cases in and out of the US (Eriksen ; Kress, 2005).
The classification of diagnostic categories started in the late 19th century. In fact, the first International list of death was adopted in Chicago in 1893 after a meeting of the International Statistical institute. Recommendations on the use of this list which was then known as the Bertillon classifications was made in 1898 and these recommendations adopted in the entire North America. Over subsequent years a number of revision were made to the list in meetings that were held in France.
In 1922, a mixed commission was formed to deal with the list and it is this commission that is responsible for the fourth and fifth which was also the last editions of Bertillon classifications (Eriksen ; Kress, 2005). In 1938, the need for parallel classification of diseases that were fatal came into light. A number of subdivision of the original list were made over the next decade but the efforts failed to gain general acceptance. The ICD-6 was endorsed in 1948 when the World Heath Organization first met (Eriksen ; Kress, 2005).
The ICD-6 was a revision of the reports on publications of statistic on classification of deaths and injuries. A number of revisions followed which led to increase in the scope of ICD which included the integration of disabilities and procedure medicines. It soon became clear that the ICD could not cover all informations required for proper diagnosis and in the tenth revision meeting a recommendation was made on a new concept whose basis would be health related classification that places emphasis on family of diseases.
This led to the development of the ICD-9 in the 1970’s which was later revised to include development in healthcare to produce the current code which is the ICD-10 (Eriksen & Kress, 2005). The APA’s DSM which was first published in 1952 and revised in subsequent years was derived from ICD-6 which was a major revision of the ICD-5 to include specific cases of psychiatric disorders (Eriksen ; Kress, 2005).