Heather Harris Dr. Simone J. AlexanderAfricana Literature 01 December 2017Haitianos, Quédate Allí!: Antihatiainismo in the Dominican Republic and “The Farming of Bones”The rich island of Hispaniola is tragically beautiful. Its beauty comes in the rich culture, people, and resources. Its tragedy lies in the harsh division and bloody history that exists amongst its two twin nations ; Haiti and the Dominican Republic. The presence of Haitians and Haitian descendants in the Dominican Republic and their treatment by the Dominicans are explored throughout the novel “The Farming of Bones”, by Haitian author Edwige Danticat. The story follows Amabelle, a Haitian servant for a wealthy Dominican family whom she has grown to love. As she becomes intertwined into their lives, her people exist in the country through the system of people and family exist through the practice of sugarcane farming. “The Farming of Bones” illuminates the detrimental effects of colorism , racism, and “antihaitianismo”, in the Dominican Republic, leading up to the massacre of 1937.At the beginning of the story, the rich Dominican woman that Amabelle works for, Señora Valencia, gives birth to twins, Rafael and Rosalinda. Amabelle brings them into the world as the midwife.Unfortunately, juxtapositioned to this event is a tragedy that results in the loss of life as new life is being brought into the world. In the rush to reach his wife and witness the birth of his children, Senora Valencia’s husband Señor Pico, races down the road, striking Joel, a Haitian cane worker, and forcing the his two companions to fall into a ravine in an effort to dodge the vehicle. In this instance and the story, Senor Pico, serves as a representative of Trujillo’s militia, who follow their leader and execute his plans, regardless of who is in the way, Alternatively, the slain cane worker, Joel is the son of Kongo who represents a father figure to many of the workers in their village. On a larger scale, he also represents Kongo represents Africa and its rich heritage, and this poses a threat to the Dominicans, and plot of the piece. “The idea behind the massacre is to rid the Dominican Republic of this tie to the African presence. Not surprisingly, the massacre is foreshadowed by the lack of regard for the death of Kongo’s son Joel. If Kongo is Africa, his children are the issue in the Dominican Republic. As Kongo’s child is killed to make way for the new Dominican offspring, so will be the Haitians living along the border. ( Petit-Frere 25)The arrival of the twins in Amabelle’s world highlights the racial constructs that divide the the island of Hispaniola. Although Amabelle had no prior experience or knowledge delivering children, the Senora trusted her enough to bring her babies into the world. She is able to call on the actions of her parents , who used to practice midwifery as well. This ability to access the knowledge of her late loved ones makes her a suitable midwife. With Amabelle’s assistance, Señora Valencia gives birth to a boy, whom she names Rafael, and a girl, whom she calls Rosalinda. Once Señora Valencia has given birth and the the babies have been cleaned up by Amabelle, and prenouced healthy, she is quickly overcome with curiousity about their conflicting appearances. The twins and the following reactions by Señora Valencia and her husband, Señor Pico, can be used to identify the issue of identity and its engrained ties to colorism in the Dominican Republic. It is natural to to make the comparison between the twins and the relationship between Haiti and the Dominican Republic given their description in the novel. “The girl appeared much smaller than her twin, less than half his already small size” Amabelle observes (31). In reality, Haiti is about a third of the size of the Dominican Republic. Haiti is also home to many more dark skin individuals than her twin island. The conflicting shades of the twins’ skin draws attention to this fact. Rafael’s silky white skin is favorable while Rosalinda’s darker complexion appears to be more reflective of the countries African origins. . Rafael is a “cherimoya milk color” and Rosalinda is “a deep bronze, between the colors of tan Brazil nut shells and black salsify” ( Danticat 11). It is a denial of blackness and ties to Africa that many Dominican people in the story possess. It is quiet, but loud in their actions. Furthermore, not only do the twins differ in color, but they also have the same origin; they shared a womb. It becomes evident that the babies were not able to share the placenta within their mother. Much like how Haiti and the dominican Republic are not able to harmoniously share the island of Hispaniola. “Señora Valencia’s womb was in fact colonized and yielded these two different offspring that once shared a space in relative peace, and when “birthed,” in turmoil, begin a history as two separate entities” (Petit – Frere 29). Unlike Haiti and the Dominican Republic, in the novel, the twin babies can in fact be seperated. Originally the preganancy was only supposed to yield one child, bu the second twin, Rosalinda, is born soon after her brother. It seems as if he has attempted to kill his sister from inside the womb, before they were even born. Doctor Javier later comments, “It’s as if the other one tried to strangle her” (Danticat 19). She enters the world with a caul and the umbilical cord wrapped around her neck, and the doctor does not expect her to survive. It can be interpreted, that through this instance, the author intended for Rafael’s attempted murder to represent him killing his darker half ; his African heritage that is represented within his sister’s skin tone. The twins are then a challenge to the idea of purity within the Dominican ethnic conscience. Rafael, continuning to assume the identity of the Dominican Republic, is named after the Generalissimo. He does not cry when he is bor, but rather when his sister is born. “The firstborn wailed as I drew another infant from between Señora Valencia’s thighs” Amabelle notes (Danticat 10). His pain is symbolically felt through her existence and survival. Señora Valencia’s fears that her daughter has simply taken Amabelle’s color, and will be mistaken for one of her people. “Amabelle do you think my daughter will always be the color she is now? ….My poor love, what if she’s mistaken for one of your people?” Valencia asks (Danticat 12). She does not wish this stigma to follow her precious Dominican baby. Through this question, Señora Valencia also showcases her own internalized seperation from Amabelle and Haitians in general. Although she appreciates Amabelle, and they once had a treasured childhood friendship, she does not believe that they are equal. Señora Valencia used the distancing word “people”, which would include her in the distancing. However, by saying the possessive “your” in front of “people,” she removes herself from the group that Amabelle belongs to. She places herself in a different, and superior category. For she is Dominican, and Amabelle is Haitian. It is through instances of fear and other subconcious emotions, that heavily engrained negative attitude toward Haitians surfaces. The Señora has two dueling sides within her. One that rememebers her hearty friendship with Amabelle, and another that must insist that she is superior to her friend simply based on their races. The side that wishes to be superior to the Haitian people , is made clear by this exchange with Amabelle. Though Señora Valencia’s questions about her baby’s skin are not asked with the intent to shame Amabelle, the blatant racism and fear is evident. Instead of accepting Rosalinda’s inheritance of the rich African blood thatpumps through the generations of the Domincan Republic, Señora Valencia decides that her daughter’s hue is reflective of the Taino people, the native Indians on the island.She describes her twins to Amabelle as “…my Spanish prince and my Indian princess…The profile of Anacaona, a true Indian queen” (Danticat 29). She chooses to liken her daughter’s coloring to the Tainos, like many Dominican people do, because they are seen as a mix of the spanish and the native people, void of any African influence. Despite this, her father, Don Ignacio casts doubt on the purity of her husbands heritage, because surely it could not be the fault of their family. When Doctor Javier notes that baby Rosalinda has “a little charcoal” behind her ears, indicating ties to a possible African ancestry, her father is quick to imply that it is the fault of Señor Pico’s heritage, as Señora Valencia’s mother was of pure Spanish blood and could trace her family back to the Conquistadores ( Danticat 17). After this initial discussion , Señora Valencia, sheds more light on the structure of her relationship with Amabelle by asking her Dominican mistress, Juana, to spend the night with her and the children, rather than Amabelle, despite the fact that she is her childhood companion and just aided in the emergency birth of her babies. Although Amabelle dismisses this act, it does lead her to vocalize her confusion over her role in society and Señora Valencia’s life. “Why Juana? Why not me?” Amabelle wonders ( Danticat 41). The author poses these questions in Amabelle’s mind so that she and the reader will be forced to think about the factors that would go into this decision.