Governance on the population. They found that the


Adorjan and Chui (2013) examine the colonial responses to
youth crime in Hong Kong during its more turbulent era between 1960s-70s. In
this publication, it studies the issue of identity, the views, governing
methods and elitism in the governance which formed the framework of the current
penal elitist framework in Hong Kong today (Adorjan and Chui, 2013, pp. 2 – 14).
In the discussion, they study the necessity and effects of the governance
responses on the population. They found that the current elitist penal system
was due to the need to achieve the wider political goals in the past (Adorjan
and Chui, 2013, pp. 14 – 16).

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as a cause of Delinquency

Fuggett and Lounder (2013) tested three hypotheses with the Attachment and
Clinical Issues Questionnaire (ACIQ) against modern theories suggesting that
interpersonal relationships are the main cause of criminal behaviour
development to see if it still reproduces the same results. The questionnaire
assesses the relationship between parents, partners and peers, and the
respondents were 61 male offenders and 531 youths (Lindberg, Fuggett and
Lounder, 2013, pp. 1171). Based on the theories, all have confirmed the
hypotheses that the quality of the relationship with the parental figures is the
strongest variable to the development of criminal behaviour (Lindberg, Fuggett
and Lounder, 2013, pp. 1179 – 1180).

Choi and Lo (2004)
sought to give a greater insight to the issues surrounding delinquents in
Singapore and compared it to Hong Kong; by uncovering the correlation between the
social circle of delinquents to actual juvenile delinquency. The authors used
both qualitative and quantitative research, comparing between delinquents with,
against delinquents with no criminal records (Choi and Lo, 2004, pp. 86 – 87).
Through their research, they note that there is a steady increase in female
delinquency, and the official delinquency figures were much lower than
self-declared delinquents (Choi and Lo, 2004, pp. 87 – 97). The main causes of
delinquency were due to dysfunctional families, low sense of belonging to the school,
association with bad company (Choi and Lo, 2004, pp. 105).

Baron and
David (2007) in this article, were testing control balance theory on street
youths. Barron and David had defined control balance theory firstly coined by
Tittle (Tittle, 1995, cited in Baron and David, 2007), following that the types of
deviance. They then defined the method and who should be categorised as street
youths (Baron and David, 2007, pp. 340 – 345). From the findings, they found
that the theories are consistent with previous researches used on different
demographics. Their study is important because it has never been conducted on
youths at risk (Baron and David, 2007, pp. 346 – 347).


(2012) discusses in this chapter the lifestyles of youths and the correlation
to delinquency. The author concluded that youths who have a peer-centred
lifestyle are more likely to be involved in delinquency compared to
family-centred youths. Youth crimes are generally group behaviour. The youths
who participate in delinquent groups are usually the subjects of
marginalisation. The neighbourhood the youth resides in will also determine if
the youth becomes delinquent, however strong family ties and parental
supervision is vital and will prevent delinquency (Steketee, 2012, pp. 252 –

Holt et al., (2013) did a comparative study
of the consequences of bullying victimisation for Singapore Youths in contrast
to the world. The authors asked the respondents on their access to and
frequency of technology use and their experiences of cyberbullying (Holt et
al., 2013, pp. 28) and concluded that all forms of bullying, both online and
offline were strongly related to suicidal and truancy rates, although there
were some differences in suicidal thoughts between genders. They had probed if
schools should extend their monitoring beyond campus and pointed out that
parents need to manage and look for signs of victimisation (Holt et al., 2013,
pp. 35 – 37).

(2015) discusses whether media violence contributes to societal violence
through violent content in Movies and Video Games. The author employed
quantitative research methods drawing data from public and private statistics. A
time-series analysis was used to analyse the trend in movie violence and to the
homicide (societal violence) between 1920 to 2005. The author found that before
the 1950s, the phenomena were opposite, then it tracked each other through the
1950s, before returning to its opposite relationship till the 21st century (Ferguson,
2015, pp. 196 – 203). Through this study, it has shown that media violence does
not have any correlation to actual societal violence (Ferguson, 2015, pp. 203 –

Näsi, Aaltonen
and Kivivuori (2016) explain that typical crime studies typically focus on the
victims, in this study they sought to explain from the offender’s perspective.
The respondents from this study were Finnish youths aged between 15- 16 (Näsi, Aaltonen
and Kivivuori, 2016, pp. 179 – 180). The findings have shown that traditional
criminological theories prove true in the analysis of hate-motivated crimes in
youths. Hate-motivated assaults and bullying had a strong association with low
parental control and vice versa (Näsi, Aaltonen and Kivivuori, 2016, pp. 180 –
182). The study, however, did not include racist and xenophobic variables.

Smithson and
Ralphs (2016) discuss the Ending Gangs and Youth Violence (EGYV) strategy in
the UK. The publication first started by giving a historical overview of gangs
and the problems associated with the definition of gangs (Smithson and Ralphs,
2016, pp. 12 – 14). The respondents were gangs and gang members in Manchester
schools (Smithson and Ralphs, 2016, pp. 14 – 19). The authors concluded that
the emphasis on youth gangs is an over-reaction argue that the measures will
have a deep impact on youths, amplified by the reduction of funding on the
already meagre funds. They also urge for stronger evidence of gang prevalence
before formulating anti-gang policies.

as Deterrence

Males, Macallair and Corcoran (2008) revaluate the
incarceration patterns for youths as the current efficacy of California’s
correctional facilities is declining. They listed the delinquency crime trends
to determine the outcomes between counties with high and low incarcerated
youths (Males, Macallair and Corcoran, 2008, pp. 2 – 6). They found that
commitment to the correctional facilities are the lowest even as the youth population
doubled, and has no affiliation with juvenile crime patterns; a state-wide
phenomenon. They concluded that the decrease in youth incarceration discredits
the current theory of incarceration and propose the decrease to other factors
to be studied in the future (Males, Macallair and Corcoran, 2008, pp. 7 – 13).

(Word count excluding references: 1,079)

References and Bibliography:

Adorjan, M. and
Chui, W. H. (2013) ‘Colonial responses to youth crime in Hong Kong: Penal
elitism, legitimacy and citizenship’, Theoretical Criminology, 17(2),
pp. 159–177. Available from:
(Accessed: 7
January 2018).

Baron, S. W. and Forde, D. R. (2007) ‘Street youth crime: A test of
control balance theory’, Justice Quarterly, 24(2), pp. 335–355. Available
(Accessed: 7 January 2018)

Choi, A and Lo, T. W. (2004) Fighting youth crime: A comparative
study of two little dragons in Asia. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press,
pp. 87–105. Available from:
(Accessed: 7
January 2018)

Ferguson, C. J. (2015) ‘Does movie or video game violence predict
societal violence? It depends on what you look at and when’, Journal of
Communication, 65(1), pp. 193–212. Available from:
(Accessed: 7 January 2018)

Holt, T. J. et al. (2013) ‘Exploring the consequences of
bullying victimization in a sample of Singapore youth’, International
Criminal Justice Review, 23(1), pp. 25–40. Available from:
(Accessed: 7
January 2018)

Lindberg, M. A. and Thomas, S. W. (2011) ‘The attachment and clinical
issues questionnaire (ACIQ): scale development’, The Journal of genetic
psychology, 172(4), pp. 329–352. Available from:
(Accessed: 7 January 2018)

Näsi, M., Aaltonen, M. and Kivivuori, J. (2016) ‘Youth hate crime
offending: the role of strain, social control and self-control theories’, Journal
of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 17(2), pp.
177–184. Available from:
(Accessed: 7 January 2018)

Smithson, H. and Ralphs, R. (2016) ‘Youth in the UK: 99 problems but
the gang ain’t one?’, Safer Communities, 15(1), pp. 11–23. Available
(Accessed: 7 January 2018)

Stahlkopf, C., Males, M. and Macallair, D. (2010) ‘Testing
incapacitation theory: Youth crime and incarceration in California’, Crime
& Delinquency, 56(2), pp. 253–268. Available from:
(Accessed: 7 January 2018)

Steketee, M. (2012) ‘The lifestyles of youth and their peers’, in The
Many Faces of Youth Crime. Springer, pp. 237–255. Available from:
(Accessed: 7
January 2018)