George within society; he connects developed attitudes concerning

George Lipsitz’s The Possessive Investment in Whiteness analyzes
the defining characteristics of racism within popular culture and the
contributions made by people of color who have since transformed the
socioeconomic and political structures of the United States. Lipsitz recalls
the origins of racism in the investment in European whiteness and racism’s
modern contributions to modern white supremacy and white privilege. Lipsitz posits
that “whiteness” is built upon a white individual’s fluid movement through a system
that works in his or her favor, allowing him or her the privileges otherwise
not granted to other ethnic groups. His understanding of race and white
supremacy manifests itself in his argument concerning the history of race as a
social construct and its consequences that have since formed institutionalized identities
and cultures that separate minority groups from European Americans.

Lipsitz’s The Possessive Investment in Whiteness analyzes white supremacy and
the shifting forms it takes. Lipsitz provides historical, cultural, and modern
context of racism in an attempt to highlight the complacency white people have
settled within to preserve their white privilege. He also provides significant
examples of resistance to white supremacy and demonstrates that his complete
analysis is furthered by the examples of activists and their movements. Lipsitz’s
decision to include “possessive” as a description of white supremacy emphasizes
the relationship between the white majority and its consistent accumulation of privilege
within society; he connects developed attitudes concerning white supremacy to
the hefty interest in preserving white supremacy to stress its taxing demand on
communities of color for asset accumulation and fluid mobility.

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Similarly, Tomas Almaguar’s Race, Racialization, and Latino Populations
in the United States examines racial formation and specific patterns of
racialization among Latino communities. Almaguar addresses the difficulty of
discovering racial identity for most Latino communities. In doing so, Almaguar
emphasizes the structure of race and racial identity, more specifically its
relation to categories of identity that include gender and sexuality,
highlighting the difficulty Latino communities face when assessing American
racial categories.

Almaguar’s Race, Racialization, and Latino Populations in the United States addresses
the American racial framework that fails to include racial and ethnic
categories for most Hispanic nationality groups. In context, the United States’
demographics have exemplified the way in which race has been constructed
socially and spatially throughout history. Almaguar’s selection is a reminder
of the historical prejudices the United States built its racial framework upon;
self-identification has since then become dependent upon an individual’s social
dynamic and willingness to conform to American racial identities.

In both selections, we find that
white supremacy has become fundamentally developed with societal progression;
its flourishment has become solely dependent on stripping assets from
communities of color with little to no repercussions. Lipsitz develops an analytical
understanding of white supremacy from which modern-day racism has originated from,
while Almaguar accentuates the problems from which racism has produced, most specifically
for Hispanic nationality groups. In context of both selections, the possessive
investment in white culture and supremacy has forged an unforgiving culture
from which our current system forces marginalized ethnic groups to conform
their identities in order to assimilate into “whiteness.” The degree to which
our investment in white culture has confused individuals’ self-identities, as
well as the extent to which white culture continues to dominate our society,
will continue to contribute to the division among racial formations in the
United States as individuals find the need to assimilate rather than rediscover
their self-identities. Despite modern resistance to white supremacy and
privilege, ethnic communities should continue to resist the temptation to
conform to already-established racial formations and attempt to appreciate the
qualities and aspects of their culture that contribute to discovering self-identity.