Events & Cultural Tourism Essay
essay will evaluate the impacts and issues surrounding the Rio Carnival,
supported with evidence from various sources and will conclude with various
findings on each of the topics that are covered within the essay.
(2002) defines event evaluation as “Event evaluation is the process of
critically observing, measuring, and monitoring the implementation of an event
in order to assess its outcomes accurately”. The success of the event will often be based
on the overall impacts that the event has had on a destination.
Carnival is one of the most famous events held in Brazil. The Carnival is held
every year before Lent. It is often considered the largest carnival in the
world with over 2 million people hitting the streets every day of the carnival.
A typical carnival parade will have a variety of different things going on at
any one time. The main attraction is the samba schools. The schools are mainly
made up of people who wish to attend the carnival together.
every place on earth gets the image it deserves,” says Anholt (2007, p.35).
Brazil is always viewed as an exotic destination for tourists, in general, and
on the one hand, it is easy to see why Brazil is viewed as a good tourist
destination because of the Rio Carnival, football, music and people such as
Pele or Ronaldo.
international image of a country can be understood and analysed through the
study of competitive national identity, a recently developed area of research
that refers to the reputation of countries as projected by the countries
themselves and as perceived by the rest of the world.’ (Fan, 2010)
Carnival is arguably the largest week in Rio de Janeiro’s calendar. However,
the images that are broadcast worldwide may lead someone into a false sense of
security as these images do not convey what life is indeed like during the
carnival. The Rio Carnival and sport have become the main reason many people
will travel to Brazil. ‘The carnival is acknowledged as a positive and
important factor in the decision to travel to Brazil. The event attracts
tourists who make a positive evaluation of the festival, and is an important
factor as to why the tourist will return.’ (Porto 2010).
parade that takes place during the Rio Carnival needed an area where both the
spectators and the participants can congregate and enjoy the carnival. This
resulted in the development of the Sambadrome. The construction of the
Sambadrome did not have an impact in attracting tourists to Rio de Janeiro,
however, the characteristics that there has been no development in the local
area since the development of the arena and has not allowed for integration
within the local community in which it is situated. The Sambadrome will often
act as a barrier as it is surrounded by a viaduct line and houses on each
street side, both of which are shut for the duration of the carnival. In recent
years this area has become susceptible to crime meaning that the locals will
not go into the local area and has contributed to urban degradation. This is
made worse when the locals will not be able to access their homes due to the
large amounts of tourists in the area, with the situation getting worse many
locals will leave their houses for the duration of the carnival which makes
their houses more vulnerable to burglary.
the duration of the carnival, the environment will also suffer. This is mainly
through sound pollution and waste that is generated by the event (Rubbish is
estimated to grow by 20% during the period of the event, largely concentrated
in the parade and the street festival areas. (Magalhaes, Serdoura and Xavier
2010). The area in which the carnival is located is part of the business
district. It is very traditional and is a popular place for tourists to visit.
The area itself has been suffering from many problems such as crime,
unemployment, and violence. The creation of the Sambadrome has done nothing to
help improve the lives of the local people, for example, different activities
could be used to help unemployed people find a way back into employment. This
was mentioned by the local government in 1999, but this has never been
implemented. The location of the Sambadrome is located in the old town centre
and the new town centre and different forms of public transport covers it well.
two main buildings that are situated at either end of the carnival street, the
Sambadrome and the Teleporto building, however poor infrastructure and
inadequate housing facilities still surround the area. The creation of the
Teleporto building required a number of buildings to be demolished leaving
behind a very run-down area.
is still waiting for urban renewal which will help to improve the
infrastructure and the lives of the local people. Due to the carnival becoming
more and more popular, more companies have taken an interest and are starting
to invest in the local area where the carnival is situated. Although this has
started the creation of infrastructure it has not made a difference to the
local people, In reality, most of the investment that has been received has
only caused segregation, worsened problems between the locals and the tourists
and caused social exclusion.
past few years, Brazil has been in the midst of a crippling recession and the
government are now wanting to increase the number of tourists that are coming
to visit the country. To do this they need to put in different measures to
complete this. However, it is clear that there is work to be done from all
Janeiro and in particular, Brazil needs different strategies put in place, for
example, the government plans to include a law to allow 100% of the foreign
ownership of airlines which will increase flight routes and help to lower the
cost of travel to Brazil (skift.com). Another plan of the governments is to
allow Canadians, Japanese and Australian tourists to apply for visas online
rather than having to go to an embassy. However, the CEO of
hiddenpousadasbrazil.com states that “Nobody knows how great Brazil is n
that the governments lack a coherent campaign to promote Brazil abroad – the
real country and not just the clichés of the Rio Carnival or football.”
years the eyes of the world have been on Rio de Janeiro with them hosting the
2014 FIFA World Cup as well as the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Games and Brazil’s
international reputation has not been great so it is extremely important that
the country can be marketed in such a way that will attract large numbers of
international tourists. The government can put emphasis on the Rio Carnival.
This party event can help to bring in millions for the local economy. The
government also need to look at how they can improve the areas that are
suffering from high crime rates; this could be through investing the money that
was raised from the Carnival into improving local infrastructure so that local
people can move on from a life of crime and hopefully get back into employment.
city of Rio de Janeiro is one of Brazil’s most popular destinations. The city
is bursting with culture and heritage, because of this the city is one of the
most visited in the southern hemisphere. Brazil has one of the most unique and diverse
cultures in the world, with many influences coming from Europe and Africa.
Recently other nationalities have helped to shape the Brazilian culture into
what It is today, ensuring that it is unique and diverse.
cultural profile surrounding the Rio Carnival is one of which where everyone
gets caught up in the festivities. When the Rio Carnival began, it was nowhere
near as extravagant as the Carnival we see today. It is important to remember
that the Rio Carnival is based on a religious event coming from the European
and African cultures. Rather than holding to separate carnivals when the event
began both cultures chose to integrate with one another, sharing the same types
of music, dance, and traditions.
Carnival is still predominately a Catholic celebration, it is clear to see that
the African culture still has quite a large influence on the Carnival, because
of this the carnival has been developed into an event that is loved across the
world by millions of people. The most obvious tradition that still plays a huge
part in the Rio Carnival is the samba dancing with thousands or performers
taking part each year.
millions of tourists will head to Brazil to witness the biggest carnival in the
world. The duration of the carnival is the biggest and busiest period for
Brazils tourism industry. For the duration of the carnival, the tourists will
need a place to rest while staying in Brazil. As the number of tourists that
visit the Rio Carnival each year is increasing the Brazilian Hotel Industry for
Rio de Janeiro (ABIH-RJ) states that “the occupancy rate in 2015 was almost 61
percent, while in 2016 the occupancy rate was predicted to reach 86 percent
with 1 million tourists expected to attend the carnival festivities, for 2017
there were 100,000 tourists expected and the occupancy rate only reached 72
the tourism industry can often be split up into different sections such as
tourism, spending, events and transportation. In 2016 car rental companies were
expecting their revenues to increase by at least 90 percent. This number was
set because nowadays many people who come to Brazil on holiday will also look
to rent a car. This is also common amongst locals as many are now choosing to
rent a car while they are going travelling rather than taking their own car,
because of this road companies and other operators were also expecting their
revenues to increase. However, this was mainly due to the Rio de Janeiro 2016
that were released in 2016 showed an increase in spending by international
tourists – an increase of 11.5% compared to the previous years, meaning that
2.32 billion dollars in the Brazilian economy came from international tourists.
Recently local business owners have reported a lower revenue and are blaming
the international image of Brazil. Brazil is struggling economically, and crime
rates are on the increase. Regardless of this tourists’ will still choose to
visit during the days of the carnival but may not stay in Rio de Janeiro.
increase in tourists visiting Rio de Janeiro during the Carnival, over 20,000
jobs will be created. This will either be direct or indirect employment, for
example, security services for the duration of the carnival or hotel employees.
Although the Carnival only lasts a few weeks the locals who had been employed
during that time will still be better off.
biggest responsibility that the Brazilian government has is to ensure that they
can guarantee the safety of all international tourists that have come to visit
the Rio Carnival. Brazil is particularly well known for its crime rates, which
are steadily on the rise, meaning that the local police force must ensure that
the safety of everyone is their main priority. The main attraction is the main
parade of the carnival. However, there are many smaller parades and parties
that take place all over the city, known as “Blocos”. It is during
these parties that the amount of drugs and alcohol that is consumed is much
higher meaning that a higher police presence is needed at these “Blocos”
to ensure everyone’s safety.
Janeiro is internationally known for being a dangerous place due to crimes such
as drug trafficking and human trafficking becoming more and more popular in Rio
and the surround areas of the city. Currently more needs to be done in order to
try and stop these crimes.
Rio Carnival had 3000 fewer police officers in the street. This is due to no
funds being available for overtime, which has been delayed since august 2016
(Riotimesonline.com). Meaning that only 12,000 officers were available for the
duration of the Carnival. The day before the carnival the government finally
decided to pay the officers all the money they were overdue for their overtime.
However, they still have not received all of this overdue pay. According to a
police spokesperson, “the lower number of officers on the streets also
reflects a reduction in festivities, which is also a result of the economic
crisis faced in the country.” It is
important that tourists pay attention to any information that is given to them
either from travel agents or an official website for the country. Most travel
agents will tell their customers the recommended places to go as well as
avoiding areas with high crime rates. Tourists should also be expected to be
aware of the different laws and regulations of the country they are travelling
to. As many of the tourists that come to Rio de Janeiro are only coming to
experience the Carnival, it is recommended that they can find good
accommodation that is in a relatively safe area. However, most will go for the
cheaper accommodation which is often quite a distance from the carnival,
meaning that they are more likely to become targets as there will be little or no
police patrolling that particular area.
conclusion, the Rio Carnival plays a major role for Rio de Janeiro. The
carnival itself has gained a worldwide audience with millions of tourists
wanting to come and experience it for themselves. The Rio Carnival can generate
millions of dollars for the local economy.
As well as
economic benefits there are also socio-cultural benefits, such as a cohesive
community as everyone will get involved with the carnival and celebrate the
local traditions without judgement.
event such as the Rio Carnival does not come without its disadvantages. The
main problem surrounding the carnival is increased crime rate that affects both
the locals and the tourists. However, with the increase in revenue, the
government need to look at ways they can use the money to help improve the
lives of the local people, e.g. by having enough emergency service at the
Carnival to ensure everybody is safe, as well as using it to improve the
overall image of Brazil.
(2007). Competitive identity: The New Brand Management for Nations, Cities and Regions.
New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
S (2017) Brazil May Have the World’s
Biggest Destination Marketing Potential, Available at: https://skift.com/2017/05/22/brazil-may-have-the-worlds-biggest-destination-marketing-potential/
(Accessed: 26th November 2017)
(2017) Only 70 Percent of Rio Hotel Rooms
Booked for Carnival 2017. Available at: http://riotimesonline.com/brazil-news/rio-business/only-70-percent-of-rio-hotel-rooms-booked-for-carnival-2017/
(Accessed: 25th November 2017).
Forte. J (2017), Rio de Janeiro
Expects to Receive 1.1 Million Tourists for 2017 Carnival, Available at http://riotimesonline.com/brazil-news/rio-business/rio-de-janeiro-expects-to-receive-1-1-million-tourists-for-2017-carnival/, (Accessed on 25th
Forte. J (2017) Carnival Tourism
Increases in the Interior of Rio de Janeiro State, Available at http://riotimesonline.com/brazil-news/rio-entertainment/carnival-tourism-increases-in-the-interior-of-rio-de-janeiro-state/, (Accessed on 25th November 2017).
(2017) Rio de Janeiro provides 3000 Less Police for Carnival
2017, Available at http://riotimesonline.com/brazil-news/rio-politics/rio-de-janeiro-provides-3000-less-police-for-2017-carnival/ (Accessed on 27th November 2017)
(2010) ‘Branding the nation: Towards a better understanding. ‘, Journal
of Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 6(2), pp. 1301-1302.
F., Serdoura, F., Xavier, H. N., Positive and Negative Impacts of Major Events
in Two Cities – The Case of Rio Carnival and Lisbon Football Championship
F.G., Giraldi, J. and Crescitelli., E. (2012)’The Image of Brazil as a Tourism
Destination: An Exploratory Study of the American Market ‘, International Journal of Business administration, 4(1), pp.1-3.
A.F. (2010) ‘Culture and Tourism: Perspective of Foreigners on the Brazilian
Carnival’, Sustainable Tourism, IV(),
(2003 ) Festival and Events Management, Oxford: Taylor & Francis