Evidence factor that resulted in productivity loss. This

Evidence provided by Mullins (2005),
suggests that poor working morale among employees was the predisposing factor
that resulted in productivity loss. This can be refined as lack of camaraderie
among the workforce, low levels of motivation, and a lack in sense of belonging,
feeling undervalued and insufficiently rewarded (as cited in Osabiya, 2015). Low
morale may be an effect of the individual’s needs not being met. Need theories
of motivation revolve around the concept that there are certain psychological
needs, with probable biological origin, that dictate and influence human
behaviour (Arnold & Silvester, 2005). Perhaps the most widely-known theory
within this category was Maslow’s (1943) hierarchy of needs theory determined
that human behaviour acts in accordance to five needs:  nutrition, stable employment, friendship,
achievement and self-fulfillment.  Though
all of these needs are required to fuel motivation, they are placed in order of
urgency, as such, less predominant needs such as love and fulfillment can only
be achieved when physiological and safety needs are satisfied (Kanfer et al., 2017).
There are many examples of implementations that a company could make in order
to cater to the employees needs: providing catering facilities and making sure
they have access to water to fulfill physiological requirements, inducing
security through proper wages and benefits, and ensuring that their environment
is safe and comfortable, encouraging socialization outside work hours between
co-workers to boost belonging,  increasing self esteem by giving praise and
rewards and supplying employees  suitable
training, and finally in terms of self-actualization, encouraging creativity
and issuing challenges. In order to assess whether the modifications have had
an effect on employee morale, staff morale questionnaire, such as the one
adapted by Mehay (2010), could be dispensed. Despite its initial popularity
sparking related need theories such as Aldefer (1969) there is a lack of
empirical support supporting Maslow according to Wahba & Bridwell  (1976). Although need theories are easy to grasp
and can act as an insight into human behaviour, they have been criticized for  being difficult to apply usefully to the work
environment ( as cited in Arnold & Silvester, 2005; Kanfer et al., 2017). However,
need theories have sparked other theories focused on specific needs namely one
in particular: achievement.  Although
pioneered by Murray (1938),  the concept
of achievement motivation was popularized by a student of his: McClelland (1961).
 McClelland’s theory of work motivation
argues that the economic prosperity of a country is reliant, in part, upon the
level of desire to achieve of its population. 
He identified three needs that he believed were not innate, but rather
that they could be acquired and developed though life experience. These include
the need to achieve, highlighted by the wish to succeed, to master tasks and to
reach goals, the need to affiliate, which is characterized by the desire to
form relationships and associate with other individuals and the need to exert
power: which is related to exercising responsibility, control and authority,
over other individuals (as cited in Arnold & Silvester, 2005; Buchbinder
& Shanks, 2011). In order to assess an employee’s need for achievement, projective
tests are normally used. These implicate the interpretation of ambiguous
stimuli, by creating a story around the images provided, as they would be key
into discovering the true nature of the individual’s personality. A much simpler,
more direct method involves assessment via personality questionnaires. Evidence
has demonstrated that achievement is indeed correlated with career success
which is why it is crucial to identify these needs in the work space (Arnold
& Silvester, 2005). Although this theory has been criticized for being
difficult to apply practically to work environments efforts should be made to
cater to achievers’ specific requirements. If an employee demonstrated a high
need for achievement, challenging tasks with attainable goals should be
introduced, while ensuring constant feedback along the way. If an employee
presents themselves as being highly affiliate, their tasks should encourage
teamwork and cooperation for completion. Finally, if an employee demonstrates a
high need for exerting power, then they must be given opportunities to manage
others’ tasks. This would not only potentially increase morale, but also mend
the leadership issue plaguing the organization in question.