Ethical among researchers. This is very important when

considerations in research are about choices and actions, and in decision making
which distinguish between the right and wrong.  It determines the
difference between acceptable and unacceptable situations. Ethical
standards will prevent against the fabrication or falsifying of data and
therefore, promote the pursuit of knowledge and truth which are the primary
goal of research.  Ethical behavior is also critical for collaborative
work because it encourages an environment of trust, accountability and mutual
respect among researchers.  This is very important when considering issues
related to data sharing, co-authorship, copyright guidelines, confidentiality, in
order for the public to support and believe in the research.  Other
helpful guidelines such as human rights, animal welfare, compliance with the
law, conflicts of interest, safety and health standards and so forth, must be
followed by the researcher.  These ethical issues are greatly impact the
integrity of the research project and affected the chances to receive funding
if researcher cannot achieve this requirement.

Ethical considerations
are main subject in research, so that many professional associations and
agencies have adopted codes and policies for the outline of ethical behavior
and guide researchers.  The examples of codes address issues is a honesty,
objectivity, respect for intellectual property, social responsibility,
confidentiality, non-discrimination and many others.  It provides basic
guidelines, but researchers will still be facing with additional issues that
are not specifically addressed and this will require decision-making on the
part of the researcher in order to avoid misconduct.  The resource on this
page address includes many of those issues and the case studies used in these
resources provide excellent examples on the types of types of issues. 

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One of the most important
ethical considerations in research is the use of human subjects.  To
address these considerations, most institutions and organizations have
developed an Institutional Review Board (IRB).  An IRB is a panel of
people who help to ensure the safety of human subjects in research and who can assist
in making sure that human rights are not violated.  They review the
research methodology in grant proposals to assure that ethical practices are
being utilized.  The use of an IRB also helps to protect the institution
and the researchers against potential legal implications from any behavior that
may be deemed unethical. 

Examples of some of these
issues include voluntary participation and informed consent.   The voluntary participation requires that
people not be coerced into participating in research. It required of informed consent whereby participants must be fully
informed about the procedures and risks involved in research and must give
their consent to participate. Harm can be defined as both physical and
psychological.  Ethical standards also protect the
confidentiality and anonymity of the subjects. Good
research practice often requires the use of a no-treatment control group – a
group of participants
who do not get the treatment
or program that is being studied. But when that treatment or program may have beneficial effects, the
persons assigned to the no-treatment control may feel of their rights to equal
access to services are being curtailed.