EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE Effect of climate change isn’t simply about rising temperature and global warming, nor is it something that will happen in the far future: it is already happening. Effect of the climate change is larger in the Earth’s poles (North and South poles). For example, population of 32,000 of Adélie penguins in Antarctica has fallen to 11,000 in 30 years, just because of climate change caused by humans, Dr. Bill Fraser says. Some expected effects of climate change include: 1. Rise of sea levels between 18~59 cm by the end of the century. Melting north and south poles can rise 10~20 more centimetres.2. Stronger hurricanes and storms.3. Drought to commonly occur.4. Spread of disease due to increased population of many different types of mosquitoes.WHAT IS NUCLEAR ENERGY?In contrast to carbon dioxide being produced when anything is burnt, nuclear energy doesn’t create carbon dioxide from the production of electricity. The fact that nuclear plants don’t burn anything and produces much less carbon dioxide than other plants supports the idea that nuclear plants produce less carbon dioxide (fig. 4).Figure 4. Graph showing amount of greenhouse gas that will be created when each source is used. In nuclear plants, energy is created by hot nuclear reactor boiling the water, which the steam turns the turbine. The main part of the nuclear plant is at a nuclear reactor. They use uranium 235 as their source. Fission (atomic splitting) happens when an atomic nucleus absorbs neutrons. And, while fission (atomic splitting) is happening, a tremendous amount of energy is created, and it is converted into heat energy in the nuclear reactor (fig. 5).Figure 5. Creation of energy from atomic fission. Amount of electricity that can be created from atomic fission with one gram of uranium is equivalent to the amount of electricity that can be created by burning three tonnes of coals. Which, makes nuclear energy very beneficial to the environment as it reduces the amount of carbon dioxide emission and makes it look like it is efficient in monetary matters, as you need less amount of resources. However, the cost to build, manage, and close down a nuclear plant is very expensive and it takes a long time. And, if the nuclear plant is damaged just like it did in Chernobyl (fig. 6) and Fukushima (fig. 7), it can cost hundreds of human and animals’ lives, and in extreme cases, the whole area within kilometers in radius from the accident spot might have to be restricted from accessing.Figure 6. Accident in Chernobyl nuclear power plant. (1986) Figure 7. Accident in Fukushima power plant. (2011) However, even with the danger of it, I think there should be more nuclear plants around the world, considering that effect of extreme climate change may result in hundreds of thousands of deaths, or it might wipe out the whole human race and animals and make the Earth into a non-livable planet.Greenhouse gases are mostly emitted from electricity production (40 percent), followed by transportation (34 percent) (fig. 8). This means that reduction of greenhouse gas production in electricity generation will cause much weaker climate change. And it is important to know that most of the electricity in the world is made by burning coal (40.2 percent), followed by natural gas (22.4 percent) (fig. 9). As presented above, amount of greenhouse gas emission largely affects the climate change, and construction of more nuclear plants will noticeably lower the greenhouse gas emission and thus be very beneficial to preventing climate change.Figure 8. CO2 Emission rate in 2013. This graph is different from the graph in figure 4 because graph in figure 4 shows amount of carbon dioxide which will be produced when they are used, and this graph shows the sources of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Figure 9. Source for world electricity production in 2012. CONFLICT TO REPLACING ENERGY SOURCES TO NUCLEAR ENERGY: PEOPLE’S OPINION ABOUT NUCLEAR PLANTSLooking at the graph at the bottom (fig. 10) we note that 30 percent of people want to close down all nuclear power plants and 22 percent of people want to build new nuclear plants, while use existing plants but don’t build new ones. People with opinion to build new nuclear plants only take up 22 percent of the world, while to not build new ones or to close down existing ones take up 69 percent of the world. In this situation, it is very difficult to replace all electricity source to nuclear energy. I believe that this result was made because people don’t understand the benefits of nuclear energy and thinks nuclear energy is only bad and very dangerous, judging from what they have seen from news. As a solution, we can let people understand information about effects of greenhouse gases and benefits of using nuclear energy. Figure 10. World’s opinion about nuclear energy.CONFLICT TO REPLACING ENERGY SOURCES TO NUCLEAR ENERGY: MONEY ISSUESIt costs a lot to build a nuclear plant (9 billion US dollars for 1/3 of a core), and it cost a lot to ntain and shut down the plant. In 1985, Forbes said that the U.S. nuclear power is “the largest managerial disaster in business history.”However, considering the economic loss that will be caused due to extreme climate change, monetary issue should not be a obstacle for preventing harsh climate change.Figure 11. Cost for construction and maintenance of (part of) power plants.