EFFECT at the gills, reduced the ability to

EFFECT
OF SUSPENDED SEDIMENTS ON FISHES

The
toxicity of suspended sediment on fish is transfer at the gills, reduced the
ability to clear sediment from the gills, and diminished osmoregulation.
Epithelial walls of gills filaments are necessary thin in order to facilitate
oxygen transfer into the bloodstream. Small particles can adhere to the gills
surface and cut off this gas exchange and cause the fish to suffer from lack of
oxygen (anoxia). The gills of morbid fish can be clogged with sediment.
However, fine particles lodged between the lamella of the fish. These particles
are fine enough to move between intracellular junctions eventually become
lodged in the spleen. Thickening of the pillar system in the gills lamella
during suspended sediment exposure may also impair oxygen transfer.

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Suspended
sediments may also cause sublethal effects in fishes such as increase in
hematocrit, red cell counts, and hemoglobin concentration in the peripheral
blood. Other physiological effects are suppression of the immune system and
increase in plasma cortisol concentration. The occurrences of fin rot have been
reported to increase after exposure to suspended solids while increase in
cortisol have also been found to lower immune system function of the fish. So,
the exposure to suspended sediment increase a fish’s susceptibility to disease.

Further
sublethal effects from suspended sediments arise from the decrease light
penetration through the water column by decrease in water clarity that can
effect fish behavior. As with most predators, fish use sight as a primary sense
in recognizing and capturing food, so increase in suspended sediment will
reduce feeding efficiency due to impaired vision.

Suspended
sediments also affect the reproductive behavior. The fishes will laid fewer
eggs, exhibited delayed spawning activity and decrease spawning effort. The
experts estimated that the similar conditions in the field would result
approximately 20% fewer eggs laid. This reduced spawning is most likely an
effect cause from both stress and reduced visual cues used in mating. In
addition, dominant males will no longer defend their territory due to lack of
visual.

 

EFFECTS
OF SUSPENDED SEDIMENT ON FILTER FEEDING INVERTEBRATES

Forming
one of the lower levels in the food chain, filter feeding invertebrates plays a
critical role in the continued health of communities and ecosystems. By feeding
on dispersed plant matter, they concentrate energy and make it readily available
for use by higher organisms. Their heightened sensitivity to disturbances has
also made them ideal test organism and the basis for many water quality
regulation. Not surprisingly, these organism are much more sensitive to
suspended sediment concentration than higher organism such as fish. They filter
water to obtain energy from the breakdown of plant matter. This process causes
them to ingest particles of sediment that subsequently become lodged in the gut
tract.

Different
species of filter feeding invertebrates seem to be affected differently,
showing the unique sensitivity of this order to environmental disturbances. The
others shown to be more resilient with regard to suspended sediment. They are more
selective feeders that will rejecting food items in the presence of suspended
clay. Other studies involving bivalves have been similar effects as those noted
for other filter feeders including decreased clearances rates, oxygen
consumption and growth.   

 

POISONOUS
POLLUTANTS

Water
pollutions occur when there are many materials were added to the water. The
source of water pollution can be categorized as a point source or a non-source
point. Point source of pollution occur when the polluting substance is emitted
directly into the waterway. A non-point source occur when there is runoff of
pollutants into a waterway, like when fertilizer from a field is carried into a
stream by surface runoff.

Marine
pollution occurs when harmful chemical and particles, industrial, agricultural
and residential waste, enter the ocean. Air pollution is also contributing
factor by carrying off pesticides or dirt into the ocean. Many toxic chemicals
are taken up by plankton and benthic animals, which are either filter feeders.
Toxic metal can also be introduced into marine food webs when they can cause a
change to tissue matter, biochemistry, behavior, reproduction and suppress
growth in marine life. Marine toxins can be transferred to land animals, when
they eat on aquatic organisms.