Supporters of inclusion differ in the extent of disability integrated into regular education classes. Some support placement only of students with mild disabilities in regular education, with students demonstrating more severe impairments participating on the regular education campus, but in separate impairments participating on the regular education campus, but in separate classes. The continuum expands to include students with more severe impairments in regular classrooms on a part-time basis, to the full exclusionists, who would have all students participate full-time despite the degree of disability.
The problem is how to incorporate students into classes where teachers and nondisabled peers are welcoming as well as competent in dealing with difference. Thus, the debate continues. This paper looks into these inclusionary practices and explores how these are helpful for all concerned. Enormous amount of research has been made to explore the factors associated with caring for a disabled children and the deleterious effects these factors have on parents’ well-being. Research evidences points out that the family attitude greatly contributes to the prognosis.
Risk factors such as lack of services and negative attitudes can have an adverse influence on the prognosis of the mentally-handicapped child. Obtainable studies show that most often parents have a negative attitude towards their child with mental disabilities. Parents are weighed down with feelings of pessimism, hostility, and shame. Denial, grief, withdrawal, rejection, projection of blame and finally, acceptance are the usual parental reactions. (Drew CJ, Logan DR, Hardman ML. )
Studies reveal that this negative attitude not only affects the parents. Family members of children with mental handicap are often perceived to experience harmful psychological effects too. Extreme stress levels heighten negative health outcomes like depression and marital dissatisfaction. Studies have found them to be at a higher risk for marital discord and social isolation. The most common psychiatric disorder found is dysthymia followed by generalized anxiety disorder and moderate depression. (Chandorkar H, Chakraborty PK. )
Some parents also tend to experience a feeling of helplessness, inadequacy, anger, shock and guilt whereas others go through periods of disbelief, depression, and blaming of oneself. The siblings are also affected as they experience feelings of guilt, shame, and embarrassment. (Frude N. ) Among the discoveries of various research is that, parents of children with disabilities perceive more problems in themselves and their family. The majority of these cases stress the subsequent negative consequences in caring for a child with a mental disability.
Although many researchers have found out those families of children with mental handicap report more stress than those of normal families. Research also shows that there is no apparent evidence that they experience fewer positive feelings. As a matter of fact, data are suggestive of no differences and even reports of a more positive perception in families of children with mental disabilities. Having a child who is in need of special care can affect both the parent and the entire family in complex ways.
While there are cases where it strengthens the family, it also entails extra demands on the parent’s time and energy and on the family’s financial resources as well. Various researches generally point out that: increased levels of stress have been widely reported for mothers of children with mental disabilities. mothers who are caring for children with mental handicap are less likely to participate in the labor force and to respond to training and employment activities designed to encourage participation in the work force. (Meyers, MK. , Brady, HE. , & Seto)