Early therefore had a divine justification to rule.

Early Civilizations have many characteristics that were required for the growth and sustainment of their cultures.  Agriculture, and mastery over food was the most important. As stated in The City, “Human survival has always been dependent on nature’s bounty.”  Jean-Claude Marsan, an Urbanist from the University of Montreal goes on to say that “we often find these two characteristics, access by water and either a rocky crag or site that could be defended.” (The City, 1999)Animal husbandry was another invaluable tool.  Religion and Philosophy were important to early societies, as were social classes, and the ability to wage war or defend their land. India has many of the characteristics above.  As access to water was such an important tool at the time, India’s first civilizations were situated near the Indus River.  Similarly the two most popular civilized areas were situated near the Yangzi and Yellow rivers.India had a class based system called Varna, which places people in classes upon birth. There was not much upward mobility, although it happened from time to time. At the top were the priests, as pleasing the gods was viewed as a very important role in Indian society, and in many societies at that time. Priests were followed by warriors, merchants (commoners), artisans (peasants), and lastly the untouchables. (Duiker, Spielvogel, 2015) China also had classes, but they were less rigid and permanent than the Indian Varna. China had warriors, or aristocrates, followed by commoners, and peasants but there was less emphasis on the social structure of the Chinese people.As earlier stated, religion was a staple of any up and coming civilization.  Those born in India at this time, would most likely identify as Buddhist, or Hindu as India is the birthplace to both of them.  In fact, India eventually spread Buddhism to modern day China.  Religion, also had a deep effect on Chinese society.  As an example, during the years, 1045–221 B.C.E., The Zhou Dynasty used what is called the Mandate of Heaven. (Duiker, Spielvogel, 2015)   It was the idea that the Zhou ruler was a representative of Heaven or God, and therefore had a divine justification to rule. As is the case with most ancient societies with the exception of a few societies like some of the American Indian tribes, women in India could not own land, and were expected to submit to some abhorrent conditions.  For instance, “Perhaps the most graphic symbol of women’s subjection to men was the ritual of sati, which encouraged the wife to throw herself on her dead husband’s funeral pyre.” (Duiker, Spielvogel, 2015)  Although women in Neolithic China held similarly discouraging roles as women in India, there were times where China was essentially ran by Empresses.  As in the book, Women in Early Imperial China (Hinsch, B. (2011), “Empress Lu acted immediately after the death of her husband, Emperor Gaozu, in 195 B.C.E. to seize power over the government by acting as regent of the youthful Emperor Hui  As regent, she ruled practically as an emperor by issuing decrees (zhi) in her own name.” In conclusion, Civilizations in any corner of the world during the Neolithic Era will have broad similarities, like access to water, agricultural mastery, general social classes, and some form of religious beliefs.  However, as you delve deeper into these similarities you find that the specifics can be vastly different between civilizations.  Kings can be gods, or they can be a god’s representative.  A civilization may have classes, but such standing may or may not affect an individual’s everyday life directly.