During education. Behind the curtain of modernization of

During the Shah’s control, women’s rights reached heights not
seen before. In the early 1960’s women finally achieved their right to vote and
run for Parliament. Given Iran’s economic boom, women were granted new
opportunities in the work force and greater access to education.  Behind the curtain of modernization of Iran,
there were human rights violations and widespread poverty. And while the Shah
was growing richer through the massive oil industry Iran possessed, most of the
Iranian citizen’s necessities were not met.1
While the Shah spend hundreds of millions upgrading the image of Iran, the
disparity of wealth widened-the rich grew richer as the poor grew poorer2
He invested little money in basic human services such as rural electrification,
agricultural development or public health. Additionally, the Shah continued
denying Iranian’s basic human rights, such as freedom of expression The Shah’s
controversial relationship with the West let to further opposition from groups
who “feared the drowning of the ancient Persian culture in a mindless imitation
of the West.”3 Which untimely let to the
development of SAVAK,4
an internal central intelligence force that, which duties were to spy, report,
arrest, and torture political dissidents. In respect to women’s rights, the
people of Iran knew that most of the Shah’s efforts had little to do with  any principal of equality and everything to
wo with his policy of modernization. Only 135
percent of women were employed, and although a greater number of women were
going to universities, the proportion of women receiving education was still a
small percentage of the total female population. Ultimately many of the Shah’s
tactics did not successfully help or improve the lives and status of most
women, instead it displaced them. The extreme poverty and human rights
violations led to instability.

In 1979, Ayatollah Khomeini came to Iran from exile and
remodeled the political and social structure in Iran. Rather than justly basing
laws on the needs of the society, he, like many dictators, set up a government
that would further the ideologies of him and his likeminded partners. He made
laws based on the Koran and the new regime started executing the remaining
supporters of the previous regimes. In his first nine months after the
revolution, Khomeini executed about 600 Iranians.6
He implemented laws requiring hijabs, regulated expressions, banned the sale of
music records from the West, and had guards invade homes to seize Western music
and to confiscate liquor and anything offensive to Islam. Ultimately, these
strict laws have greatly effected Iranian women more than men. Women are
treated as hald of a man.

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Currently, President Hassan Rouhani has championed a deal
promising all Iranians would benefit economically from the deal he reached with
the European Union. This nuclear deal has marked a historic breakthrough in
which Iran began re-engaging with the global economy. And while Rouhani’s
rhetoric will remain the same, it too will remain detached from the daily
reality of a critical constituency in Iran and one which makes up half the country’s
population: Iranian Women. Today Women in Iran are confronted with a range barriers,
which untimely restrict their lives, which further lead to unequal economic
outcomes. Women in Iran comprise of 50 percent of the population but only make
up 17 percent of the labor force. The 2015 Global Gender Gap report, stated
that Iran ranks among the last five countries(141 out of 145) in the world for
gender equality. Discrimination against women in Iran is shaped in part by
political ideology that women should play their “roles” as mothers. However,
what largely goes unmentioned is is the women’s roles in the Iranian society is
forced by many discriminatory laws towards them in the economic realm. Rouhani
figures, if he can keep women out of power, they will be more likely to stay
quit and not rebel.  Many of Iran’s
discriminatory laws can be found in Iran’s 1936 civil code. After the Islamic Republic
of Iran came to power in 1979, much of the authorizes threw away much of the
progress that had been made and instead proposed legislation enforcing dress
codes and other ridiculous out dated laws. Recently they have punished women’s
rights groups for their efforts to promote gender equality. Notwithstanding
their struggle women have managed to thrive in higher education as they
represent the majority of test takers in the national university entrance
exams. Although, unemployment for women is is three times as high as it is for
men.

 

 

 

 

I.              
International Bill of Rights

Soon after the
Holocaust and other international human rights violations, “the nations of the
world decided that the promotion of human rights and fundamental freedoms
should be on of the principal purposes of the United Nations organization.”7

Accordingly, in the late 1940s, the U.N. Social
Council established the Commission on Human Rights.  One of the first things the council accomplished
was preparing a declaration on the fundamental human rights and freedoms.8
They set to draft two documents: one in the form of a declaration, which set
out the general principles of human rights; the other in the form of a
convention, that would define specific rights and their limitations.9
This Commission’s drafting’s culminated in the International Bill of Rights,
which consisted of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International
Covenant on Civil and Political Rights-this serves as the foundation for
international human rights law today.