Drinking money. The greater the discounting of delayed

Drinking among college students has
always been a huge health concern, but also can hurt academic performances in
students causing them to either receive lower grades or drop out of school. Heavy
drinking can end in hangover sickness, unwanted sex, and/or driving while
intoxicated which can sometimes be fatal. Recent estimates show that 60% of
college students reported drinking in the past 30 days. This is a very high
number considering the fact that some students in college have yet to reach the
legal drinking age. This study shows that colleges and universities should be striving
to provide alcohol prevention strategies to protect their students because of
the overwhelming harm it can cause to students physically, mentally, and also

            There has been plenty of evidence
based on the relationship between alcohol misuse and academic issues that gives
us the need to determine ways to avoid alcohol abuse amongst students. Strategies
to diminish alcohol abuse to maintain academic success could help to reduce the
public health concern of college students and drinking. Public behavioral
strategies (PBS) are behaviors that students can use while drinking. This means
that reducing the number of drinks consumed, avoiding drinking games and having
a designated driver to avoid traffic accidents are good ways of reducing the negative
impacts of alcohol. Even eating a filling meal before drinking can slow down drinking
for students and can also diminish the next day hangovers.  PBS basically explains alcohol related
problems that are not specifically based on actual alcohol consumption.
Students can avoid high blood alcohol levels by using these protective behavioral

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            Delay discounting (DD) is a
behavioral economic concept that defines the degree to which a person will
devalue a consequence as a function of time (Acuff et al., 2017). It is usually
measured by asking participants, in this case, students, to choose between
immediate money and delayed larger amounts of money. The greater the
discounting of delayed rewards relates to alcohol misuse. It is also connected
with a lower GPA and IQ. Lower delay discounting may aid in reducing the way
students drink that could hurt their physical health and academic success. The
ability to value future outcomes requires considerable self-control to be able
to keep working towards the students’ goals. High discounting delay rates are related
towards alcohol related issues.

Consideration of Future
Consequences (CFC) is another concept that this article talks about. Students
thinking about their future are probably less likely to have a drinking problem
since they are foreseeing the consequences. Lower CFC is associated with
greater alcohol abuse and problem drinking as well as greater levels of
aggression while intoxicated (Acuff et al., 2017). Higher CFC is associated
with higher GPAs. It has also shown to predict how college students drink
during a brief alcohol intervention trial. Academic engagement in students and
the outcomes among college drinkers have not been studied to see if CFC could
be associated with them.

The current study uses prior studies
that have examined factors against the consequences of heavy drinking by
looking at the relationships between public behavioral strategies, delay
discounting, and consideration of future consequences with the academic
performance among college students. They came up with a hypothesis that
explains PBS, DD, and CFC would be associated with academic success by using
controlling factors such as, gender, race, alcohol consumption, and parental

 393 college student binge drinkers from two
universities were participants in this study. Binge drinkers in this case are
men and women who drink about five or four drinks on two or more instances in
one month. Students who reported two or more drinking days, were over the age
of 18, and were either freshman or sophomore level. This study utilized SONA,
classroom screenings, and emails to get the survey information from the student
participants. For incentive, the study offered money or extra credit for their

There were many measures taken such
as alcohol use, academic variables, PBS, DD, CFC, and data analysis plan.
Students who participated were asked to estimate the total amount of drinks
consumed each day. The daily drinking questionnaire is widely used to measure
alcohol consumption. They used high school rank, grade point average, and
academic engagement to analyze these student participants. To analyze academic
engagement, students reported time doing school work, exercise, employment,
activities outside of school, and using alcohol or drugs.

The results show that participants
drank 17.03 standard drinks in a typical week in the past month and reported
13.07 alcohol-related problems in the past month (Alcuff et al., 2017). The
relationship between delay discounting and consideration of future outcomes
compared with academic success were seen in the figures of the analysis. They
were successful in predicting GPA. Public behavioral strategies were not
applicable when predicting GPA, but predicted academic engagement.

Through this research we can see
that despite heavy drinking, students who value their future and organize their
behavior around outcomes that will come will experience academic achievements
during their time at university. The limitations of this study are important to
note. The GPA data was collected at the end of the semester, but all of the
other data was collected in the middle of the semester. This means that students’
academic performance in the middle of the semester will have an effect on delay
discounting and consideration of future consequences. The information measured
was provided by self-reporting which may not reflect the actual circumstances
of the study. The choices have been shown to reflect actual choices because of
the use of reliable and valid measures. This study also only used students who
are in either their first or second year of college, which may not reflect the
total population of the schools. Typically, students in their freshman and
sophomore years are under the age of 21 and cannot even legally buy or drink alcohol.
Other individual-level
variables not included in the current study, such as IQ, parent education
level, college major, career goals, and attitudes toward education, may play an
even larger role in these relations and should be elucidated (Alcuff et al.,

There are many ways for universities to
enhance their ways of encouraging students to focus on their futures and
academics. This study suggests providing more immediate feedback such as more
tests, classroom attendance being mandatory, and giving step by step
instructions on projects by having students hand in pieces of the project to receive
grades before turning in the final project. Many students seem to procrastinate
until the end of the year to start their projects and by giving them structured
steps throughout the semester will help to eliminate procrastination and help
fix their way of completing projects.

            This journal takes a few hundred
college student binge drinkers and compared certain variables to one another.
They use the public behavioral strategies, delay discounting and consideration
of future consequences to help compare the students drinking habits with their
academics. In conclusion, we find that in the same model, consideration of
future consequences predicted academic engagement better than delay
discounting. Delay discounting predicted students’ GPA better than CFC. Public
behavioral strategies predict academic engagement and the students who use this
method will usually not experience hangovers or other alcohol related concerns.
These methods, PBS, DD, and CFC, are protective factors which can predict
students’ academic success.