The data was scored using two schemes drawn from Seceda’s (1991) study. For the class practicing Landa’s Algo-Heuristic Theory, a strict scoring system was used. For a correct answer, the student received one point; otherwise, he received zero (or no) point. For the class practicing Pask’s Conversation Theory, a more lenient scoring system was applied. If a student gives a correct answer he received one point. However, there is a possibility that a wrong answer may result from students obtaining a solution that may have resulted to a correct answer if done properly.
If this is the case, then the student received a half-point. If the solution and the final answer are incorrect, then the student received zero (or no) point. The scale ranged from zero to ten based on the total score. The scores of each of these three examinations were then added. Then the highest score, lowest score and average score were compared. The t-test was used to determine if there is a significant difference between the two average scores.
To determine the level of understanding of the students in mathematics, the scores obtained in the final examination were compared to the scores obtained in the students’ mathematics pre-assessment examination. The t-test is also used to compare the average scores. The scores obtained in their English proficiency exam determine the proficiency of the students in English. The respondents’ answers to the questionnaires were also analyzed. From the table, we can observe that the students are not highly proficient in the English language. However, we can still say that they are not ignorant of the language.
Their proficiency is sufficient enough to show that they understand English. Out of the forty students, thirteen students are highly proficient in English (two got perfect scores, six got nine correct answers out of ten, five got eight out of ten). Fifteen students got average scores (seven got seven out of ten, and eight got six out of ten). Thus, majority of the students are proficient enough in English. However, eleven got very low scores (eight got five out of ten, and three got four out of ten), thus, instructions were rendered both in English and Hispanic.
The average score on the mathematics examination show that, overall, the students understand the subject but are not highly skilled in the area. However, there are two out of forty students who got perfect scores, six who got nine correct answers out of ten, and seven who got eight out of ten showing that most of the students are skilled in mathematics. Out of the forty students, eighteen got average scores (eleven students got seven out of ten, and seven got six out of ten). Thus, majority of the students understand mathematics well. However, there are five students who do not have enough knowledge in mathematics.
These students were observed more closely in the experiment to determine if the new approach in teaching will help them understand the subject matter better. Addition and Subtraction Examination To assess the students’ understanding on solving addition and subtraction problems, their scores on their addition and subtraction examination were analyzed. The following table gives the students results from the examination. The computed t-value comparing the average scores of Pask students and Landa students is 2. 168.
This means that there is a significant difference between the average scores (since 2. 168 is greater than the tabular t-value 1. 73 at 85% CI). Since the t-value is positive, then the average score of the Pask students is greater than that of the Landa students. However, the difference is not that significant. Moreover, two of the Pask students got perfect scores while none of the Landa students got a perfect score. The highest score of the Landa class is nine out of ten (four of the Landa students obtained this score). None of the Pask students got five out of ten correct answers. There are five Landa students who got five out of ten. Multiplication and Division Examination
Our next goal is to evaluate how the students performed in their multiplication and division examinations. The following table shows the results the students obtained in the multiplication and division examination. The computed t-value obtained from comparing the multiplication and division examinations of the two classes is 1. 81. Thus, there is a significant difference between the average scores of the two classes (given the tabular t-value 1. 73 at 95% CI). Since the t-value is positive, we can conclude that the average score of the Pask students is greater than that of the Landa students.
However, the difference is not as significant as the difference between the scores the two classes obtained in the addition and subtraction examination. Also, observe that eight Pask students got perfect scores while only five Landa students got perfect scores. None of the Pask students got two out of ten correct answers. There are two students from the Landa class whose score is two out of ten correct answers. The lowest score in the Pask class is three out of ten correct answers (obtained by three Pask students).