Daniel transportation as a solution to get from

Daniel Reyhan

Envi. 460

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Professor. Holahan

Final Paper

Emissions In New York City           

If acid rain eradicates our atmosphere will it eventually
destroy human life? Is there a possible solution for this? Cities from all
across the world have vast dilemmas with pollution. One type of pollution that
is straightforwardly destroying the air that we breathe is vehicle exhaust emissions,
which is the burning of gasoline, especially in New York City. Picture New York
City, thousands of cars every day going in and out, especially taxis; think
about what this does to the pollution. Every day that goes by, it adds up.

Although this is a major problem, there are solutions to help salvage this
issue. There are many alternative resolutions people can do to decrease the
levels of pollution that cause acid rain. Some people ask, “What is acid rain”?
Acid rain is the result of all the exhaust emissions added up that cause a
serious economical dilemma. More people need to become more aware of this
problem and should begin using public transportation as a solution to get from
one place to another. For instance, the change from using cars that use
gasoline to converting over to electric cars. Acid rain causes many ecological
problems, as well as damage to human health. Furthermore, acid rain is a
dilemma that won’t be completely dismissed by these solutions, but with the
help of the government, and us humans, we can unquestionably reduce the amount
of exhaust emissions in the long-term goal.

to New York state law, all cars and trucks must go through a state inspection
for their vehicles to ensure that they are properly safe to be driven on the
roads. Every motor vehicle that is registered in New York must meet a minimum
of standards for safe operation to be driven on public streets and highways. On
top of that, countless motor vehicles are due for an emissions evaluation to
help further diminish air pollution (NYS).  The owner of the motor vehicles may save money if their car
conserves fuel more economically, performs better, and if the vehicle is safer
as a whole. By following the instructions of standard vehicle repairs as
suggested by the manufacturer, you can improve your own vehicle by doing yearly
assessments and safety checks. This is the requirement for the safety and
emissions inspection by New York State for cars and trucks, although other
motor vehicles such as motorcycles and tractor-trailers have different
requirements for yearly inspections. Additionally, according to the New York
State vehicle inspection law, every registered vehicle must be inspected every
12 months, must get inspected before the date on your inspection sticker, and when
the vehicle gets registered under a new name. In 1990, there was an act
proposed by New York State, which had gotten passed called the Federal Clean
Air Act. This act was projected to carry out inspections to minimize the
dangerous emissions from the majority of all motor vehicles and trucks. The
emissions inspection is conducted at the same time as the yearly safety
inspection for vehicles. Vehicles that do not pass the emissions inspections
may not be registered, or if the car is already registered, the registration
may not be renewed (NYS). Another inspection that was passed is called the
On-Board Diagnostics Generation II Inspection. This inspection is used for the
purpose to observe check engine light for proper operation, and makes sure that
the test results of the motor vehicles “on-board emissions diagnostic” system
(NYS). This type of inspection is used for the most part for cars from 1996, or
newer gas powered vehicles and most 1997 diesel powered cars that weigh less
than 8500 pounds. There is a further assessment called the Low Enhanced
Inspection; this appraisal is required for a large amount of other vehicles.

This inspection is used for vehicles that were manufactured in 1995 and older,
all the way through vehicles that are up to 25 model years old, and weigh
18,000 pounds or less. This assessment is primarily used to make sure that the
vehicles gas cap exists, fits correctly, and is in great condition (NYS). The
following emissions are carefully looked at when examining the issues of the
exhaust emissions: catalytic convertor, exhaust crankhouse ventilation system,
air injection system, fuel inlet restrictor, and thermostatic air cleaner
(NYS). By keeping your vehicle suitably maintained, your car will pass these
inspections effortlessly. The gas cap is an element of the emissions system,
and with a faulty fuel cap it can make the check engine light to go off, which
in result put off the vehicle from letting the car pass the emissions test.

environment, which we live in, is debilitated by car-pollutants, which causes
immediate and long-term effects. The exhausts from cars give off a broad series
of gases, which cause global warming, acid rain, impairment of the environment,
and the health of humans as well. Pollution is caused by engine noise and fuel
spills. It is known that the prime provider to air pollution is caused by cars
and trucks and other means of transportation, but the car owners can trim down
their vehicles effects on the environment (Anon). One of the foremost causes of
global warming is due to car pollution. This is because cars and trucks give
off greenhouse gases and carbon dioxide, which is a factor to the one-fifth of
the total global warming pollution in the United States. The reasoning that
there are worldwide temperatures that are rising is due to the fact that
greenhouse gases are trapping heat in the atmosphere. The global temperatures
as a whole has increased one degree Fahrenheit since pre-industrial times, and
will continue to rise over the coming years. The reason for that is because the
world as a whole is burning too much amounts of fossil fuels, especially
gasoline. The result of warmer global temperatures not only affects us humans,
but also affects farming, wildlife, sea levels and natural landscapes (Anon).

There are several effective ways of reducing car pollution as a whole. It is
known that cars that are old and poorly maintained cause most pollution, but
clean fuel-efficient cars such as electric and hybrid cars have reduced
pollution immensely. Always check the fuel economy and the environment label
when purchasing a new vehicle. High ratings generally means low pollution
levels. You can maximize your fuel economy by driving progressively instead of
gassing your car quickly and braking hard, and removing all unnecessary items
from your car such as bicycle racks. It is known that when your car is idling
it wastes more gas than when you are actually driving. If you are idling for
more than five minutes you should turn off your car, this is because your car
releases the most toxins when its standstill.  People should always have their car properly maintained with
regular tune-ups and check their tire pressures, and drive as least possible. People
should try and walk, bike and use public transportation as most as possible to
help lessen car pollution (Anon). Us humans can help reduce the levels of acid
rain as well by using less energy because the energy that we use all comes from
the burning of fossil fuels. For example, when a person leaves a room he or she
should always turns off the lights; minimize the amount of heat and air
conditioning that they use. A smart idea would be to replace old appliances and
electronics with newer energy efficient products. By adding scrubbers to
utility plants, sulfur dioxide emissions can be reduced greatly as well. In
addition, there are alternative power sources that power plants can use to
reduce emissions such as: geothermal energy, solar power energy, wind energy,
and water energy (Acid). An alternative method instead of the burning of fossil
fuels can be replaced with the use of batteries, natural gas, and fuel cells.

All energy sources that we use today have both economic and environmental costs,
as well as benefits. There is only one solution to this problem and that is
sustainable energy that can protect our future (Causes).

result of vehicles exhaust emissions sparks countless diverse types of
environmental issues. This has been a major issue for decades now, but car
manufactures have been tackling this issue and improvising by constructing
their cars to be more gas efficient. When compounds that are released from
exhaust emissions from vehicles such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides they
form a chemical reaction that creates acid rain. Humans are the main cause of
acid rain. These substances can go up very high into the atmosphere, and at
this point they mix and react with water, oxygen, and other chemicals to create
acid pollutants, which is another word for acid rain. Both sulfur dioxide and
nitrogen oxides break down very easily in water and thus can be carried by wind
very far. In result, the two compounds can pass through vey long distances where
eventually they become part of the rain, sleet, snow, and fog that we encounter
(Acid). Although some rainfall is acidic natural at a Ph level of approximately
5.0, humans as a whole have actually made it much worse. If precipitation turns
out to be too acidic, the materials that the rainfall falls upon may not be
able to neutralize all of the acids. Eventually, these neutralizing materials
are going to be washed away by the acid rain. In result, it will cause damage
to crops, trees, lakes, rivers, and animals (Acid). Acid rain does not only
cause harm to natural ecosystems, but it also causes damage to man-made
materials and structures. Acid rain causes severe corrosion to materials such
as marble, limestone, and sandstone. It is revealed through time that man-made
materials deteriorate slowly when exposed to unpolluted rain, but when acid
rain gets a hold of these materials, the process speeds up tremendously. This
is the reason many monuments that are built with stone lose their features when
combined with acid rain (Acid). One example that shows a clear relationship
with acid rain and a famous monument was the Statue Of Liberty. For example, in
1886, France gave America this monument, and it was built using copper. Over
years and years of acid rain being crashed down on the monument, the color
shifted from a brown/gold color to what it is now seen as green.

list of ecological effects of acid rain is endless, but there are two different
forms in which acid deposition occurs. The two different kinds can be seen as
wet and dry deposition. Wet deposition can be seen when the wind carries the
acidic chemicals into the air.  These
areas where the weather is wet causes the acidic particles to drop to the floor
in the form of either rain, sleet, fog, snow, or mist (Causes). Then, it
removes acid from the environment and dumps them onto the earth’s surface. When
this acidic water goes through the soil, it affects an immense amount of
plants, animals, and especially aquatic life. Next, the acidic water travels through
canals and rivers, which is then assorted with the seawater, in result having a
major effect on marine habitats (Causes). The opposite of wet deposition is dry
deposition. This is when wind blows acidic chemicals up into the air into areas
where the weather is explicitly dry, and the acidic pollutants stick to smoke
and dust which then fall to the ground as dry particles. These acidic chemicals
then stick to other surfaces such as trees, cars, and homes. Rainstorms will
then wash the dry deposited gases and particles off where the runoff water
conjoins with the acid rain, which in result adds more acidic water than the
falling rain alone (Causes).

rain is not only an economical factor, but it affects humans as well. In the
atmosphere sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide gases come together and corrupt
visibility where consequentially causes accidents. This leads to damaged body
parts, and in the worst of cases death. Acid raid is too dilute to cause any
major health problems, which is why human health is not straightforwardly
affected by acid rain. On the other hand, the dry depositions, which are also
known as the gaseous particles in the atmosphere, can cause major health issues
when breathed in. In the worst cases of acid depositions in dry form, it can
cause lung and heart problems such as bronchitis and asthma (Causes).

acid rain has caused so much damage already, we ought to restore the damaged
environments. By the use of limestone or lime, there is a process called
liming, this is the practice people do to salvage the damage caused by acid
rain to lakes and rivers. The lime is used on acidic surface waters because it
balances the acidity levels. This procedure is commonly used to maintain the pH
at its greatest level. Liming is known to be an expensive technique, but has to
be done repetitively. Although it is costly, it is needed to help refurbish and
allow the continued existence of aquatic life forms by making the constantly
surface waters change for the better (Causes).

policy goal for this dilemma would be to diminish the amount of exhaust
emissions that our cars are releasing for all car owners. Cars and trucks are
the leading reason for the highest rate of the nations pollution rate. Our cars
emit pollutants, which in result cause an even bigger predicament. The
consequences from these pollutants cause a larger problem in our atmosphere
that people will have to deal with decades from now. Acid rain is a huge crisis
that is causing damage to many different ecological factors, and human health
as well as indirectly. As a population as a whole, we must take action now, and
get a grasp of all the precautions we can take to preserve our environment, and
salvaging the problem with acid rain in the natural world.

a result to this matter, it can be seen that the two major substances that
destroy our atmosphere are nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide. Nitrogen oxide
emissions come primarily from motor vehicles, while utility factories are the
major cause for sulfur dioxide emissions. These gasses dissolve into the
atmosphere, which in effect cause the crisis of acid rain. When the acid rain
drops down back onto the earth’s surface it causes huge problems for the
environment, as well as human healthiness. This regularly takes the life of plant
life and damages existence in marine life. The toxins in the rain affect humans
indirectly because we eat the fish that have been affected by the acid rain. The
government has set laws to help diminish the problem the population is having
with the two toxins, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. In reality it is up to
us humans as a whole population of New York to work with one another to prevent
the discharge of these pollutants. It is recognized that if the acid rain
eradicates our atmosphere, eventually it will destroy human life as well










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