Bronze age nation. 3
Role of Archaeologists 3
Main Harrapan Sites: 3
Occupation of indus valley peoples: 4
Agriculture of Indus
valley peoples: 4
Life style of Indus
valley inhabitants: 4
Water management system: 5
Irrigation System: 6
Decline of Indus valley
Signs of civilization:
We have studied about Indus valley civilization from
the indication which our predecessors
have left behind. The signs of this
civilization were observed from dry palm leaves, pillars & rocks, copper plates and clay of that time. The weapons ,ceramic and other devices come across during
digging tell us about the lifespan and values of the inhabitants of those times.
in the recent years has contributed considerably. The first place excavated
Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age nation
because most of the metals used at that time was Bronze and it was traced in
the northwestern section in the Indian
Role of Archaeologists
of the noteworthy role of Archaeologists
was the discovery of the location at Harappa in year
1921 and Mohenjo-Daro in 1922. These
two sites are nowadays in Pakistan. The reward was given to Sir Alexander Cunningham, Mortimer,
Sir John and others. The quarries at these locations tell us about the ethnicity of the civilizations
that flourish around 3500 BC on the bank of Indus River
Main Harrapan Sites:
traditions were extended to various areas such as: Haryana, Sindh, Balochistan,
Uttar Pradesh, Jammu,Punjab,and Gujrat. The main Harrapan places are Mundigak in afghanistan, Kot diji which is located on the left bank of River Indus opposite to Mohenjo-Daro,
Harrapa, Mehrgar in Balochistan, Amri near the Indus River, Dam Sadaat in the Quetta Valley of Balochistan.
an officer with Indian archaeological
investigative troop discovers the devastated areas of a prehistoric city recognized as Mohenjo-Daro. The meaning of word
Mohenjo-Daro is Mount of Death and it was one of the largest city in the Indus valley
civilization. It is found in Larkana District in the modern Sindh, Pakistan.
Occupation of indus valley peoples:
unique building structures,agriculture
,irrigation system, exceptional
town planning etc. The main profession of Indus valley people was farming.
Other activities involve weapon making, spinning, weaving, toy making, stone
cutting, trading etc.
Agriculture of Indus valley peoples:
The food crops cultivated at that time were wheat and barley. Evidences have shown that cotton was also produced. Harrapan people were the first
that cultivate cotton. Peasants also cultivate peas. The nutrients that plants
needed were replenished at the time of flooding. For farming, animals were also
used. The Domesticated
animals for example pigs,
sheep, goats, horses, donkeys etc were used. Rice was
also cultivated at that time.
Life style of Indus valley
avenues of Harappa exhibit the brilliance
of their designers. The streets and roads
of the city were quite narrow. All the roads overlap at right angle. The people dwell in the houses that were made up of
blocks. The people belonging to ruling class had their homes on the citadel of the town. The common people lived on the land
below the citadel known as Lower town. The houses had a provision of doors and windows. Each house had a
courtyard, bathrooms, kitchen and a
staircase to take the residents on the roof. A few houses had two or three stories.
Many people had big houses. The largest site in Mohenjo-Daro where people store
food was called Great Granary.
bath was a unique structure.
It had distinctive features. It was used for some kind of special ritual bath.
The city was divided into two parts i.e. upper part(citadel) and lower part.
The biggest building in this town is a citadel.
It was 45.71meters long and 15.23 meters wide. Six citadels were found in
Harrapan civilization. The lower part was the residential area where common
folks lived. It was the thriving economic and cultural centres.
city was comprised of 2 parts such as: upper part (citadel) and lower part. The
largest building in this town is known as a citadel.
The common folks were residing in the lower part of Mohenjo-Daro city.
Water management system:
very good provision of drains for the outlet of water in the town of
Harrapan civilization. All of the drains were made up of rock solid concrete. Water of the inhabited drains fell in the
gutters of the streets.
was shocked when they discovered that the whole city had a complicated water
management system. The ground gets fertile when the river brought in silt and
this in return helps to cultivate the crops. The town consists of a number of
wells that people used it for drinking and in agriculture.
is the process of giving water to crops in agriculture. Irrigation was very
essential for farming in ever civilizations including Indus valley civilization.
The people of this civilization do not use canals or waterways all year, which
was very different as compared to other civilizations. Instead they would turn
the flood season in advantage. Their irrigation style controls the water from
heavy rainfall. Water was caught in channels which they directed into fields.
According to Vedas, they had wells that also supply water in these channels
when they were not in the flood season. The Dholavira one of the 5 largest Harrapan sites had an outstanding system for saving
rainwater. The rainwater from the citadel passes through the drains. Drains direct
the rainwater in a large reservoir
outside the dholavira. For the resident
of Dholavira, water was the basic need for the endurance of people. Water comes
out as the Mother
Decline of Indus valley civilization:
But unfortunately, these Indus
valley cities started to decline. Some
natural factors such as overcrowding, floods,
lack of control and unconcerned maintenance are considered a main cause
slow decline of this great civilization. Ironically, human history repeated with such pattern of growth
and decay and is well expressed with Shelley’s
renowned prose Ozymandias. I code the last line of Ozymandias
name is Ozymandias, king of kings
upon my works, yemighty, and despair
beside remains, Round the decay
that Colossal wreck, boundless and bare
lone and level sand stretch far away