CHAPTER will be discussed and the adapted theory

CHAPTER
2

LITERATURE
REVIEW

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2.0 Introduction

            In
chapter 2, it will discussed about the past research which already discovered
by the researchers from the past.  The
past research is mainly retrieve from the research journal at the past and it
has been further discuss in this topic. 
It can become an evidence to support this research. The chapter 2 also
discussing about the variables in this research and focus on the influence of
source of information toward purchasing intention.  Furthermore, the relationship between the
variables will be discussed and the adapted theory will be provided to show the
relationship between the variable.  Then,
the hypothesis is come out to support this research.

2.1 Review of key concepts

            The
different meaning of word regarding the topic will be discussed further in the
following part.  The key concept is
mainly use to reword the question and make in more clearly understand by reader
(Keohane & Olmstead, 2016).

2.1.1 Tropical fruits

            This research is mainly discussed
about tropical fruits which can be found in Kuching, Sarawak.  There can found many types of tropical fruits
in Sarawak. Tropical fruits will only be found in the tropical rainforest.  There can found several category of tropical
fruits available in the market, the category of the tropical fruits can be
categorized by determine their attributes, ease to consumption, based on
seasoning, time to consuming and the characteristics of the tropical
fruits.  Some of the examples of tropical
fruits are such as durian, mangosteen, rambutan, langsat, cempedak, guava, rose
apple, papaya, starfruit, watermelon, jackfruit, mango, pineapple and sapodilla
(Normah, Malik, Chaudhury, Salma and Makeen, 2013).  Then, a lot of rare tropical fruits also can
be found in Sarawak.  Since Sarawak has
strategic geographical area.

            Malaysia
is one of a country which is occupied with several abundance of beautiful
natural resources which is suitable developing for marketable and encourage
tourist to visit this country.  An
agriculture industry in Malaysia has a lot of contribute to our Malaysia
economy nowadays.  The fruits and
vegetables eaten by consumers are all categorized under the agriculture
industry in Malaysia.  The tropical
fruits can be in several forms which is fresh or canned.  Consumers are more willing to buy fresh
fruits comparing to canned fruits. 
Although they buy for fresh fruits, but canned fruits still are
marketable.  This is because canned food
can save consumer time and easily found in supermarket.  Some consumer might need to have some
experience on the fruits, but not depend on the sights or sounds of the fruits
when they make purchase on the tropical fruits (Llin & Gaztelumendi,
2012). 

            The
tropical fruits that can be found in Kuching, Sarawak are usually high in
vitamin content (Hiwilepo, Bosschaart, Twisk, Verkerk, and Dekker, 2012).  There also can found some visitors come from
other countries come to buy the tropical fruits in Kuching, Sarawak.  The rare tropical fruits which can found in
Kuching, Sarawak can be considering also as an iconic food in Kuching,
Sarawak.  According to Symons (1999),
iconic food is a fundamental element of a place’s attribute, increase the
attraction and enrich visitor experiences. 
Then, the local tropical fruits can make visitors to visit to Kuching,
Sarawak also.  This will contribute to
the local fruits market.

2.1.2 Source of Information

            Information
regarding a understanding of an individual or consumer when they decide to make
a purchase decision is necessary required to have when making purchase toward
tropical fruits or some rare fruits.  It
is help to get a better understanding about the fruits which is going to eat
and know their functions and attribute. 
Then, the consumers will not regret to buy the several fruits which are
never tried before.  The information
enables consumers to measure among what is right and what is wrong of the
information.  There are several sources
of information related to the purchase intention.  In this research, the source of information in
this study includes electronic word-of-mouth, social interaction and
advertisement.

i. Social Interaction

            The
first of the sources of information affecting consumer purchase intention
toward tropical fruits is social interaction. 
A social interaction can be happened in anytime or any place when there
are more than one people is met together and discuss about somethings.  The social interaction may be in the positive
form or negative form.  The positive
interaction among people can tend to create a strong information network
(Heaphy & Dutton, 2008).  This
information network could affect the daily life of individuals and motivate the
particular norms.  Within their social circle,
the relationships of person’s exchanges information about childbearing choices,
learn about other’s preferences, from expectation on their future choice (Khan,
Kamble, & Khatri, 2011).  According
to Isaacs (1993) defined dialogue as a sustained collective review into
processes, assumption and certainties that everyday experience.  The powerful of dialogue influences the
consumer behaviour in term of making decision. 
The experience includes interaction with others, product or service-used
experiences and any experience brings meaning to embody in society.  The consumers will affected by the dialogue
and influence the intention towards mentioned tropical fruits which are never
tried before.  Freese and Burke (1994)
claimed that group process depend on symbolic interaction and interpersonal
transaction.  The symbolic interaction
use words as important tool to express people’ experience and as a basic of
social interaction (Blumer, 1969).

            Social
interaction is formed by non-symbolic interaction and symbolic interaction and
persons tie their situations of interpersonal interaction to their social
systems of interaction (Freese and Burke, 1994)).  Hence, social organization and social
interaction are influenced by feedbacks that cycle from non-symbolic through
symbolic interaction and back, in order to understand the way of individuals behave
and social structures function.  The
personality as a structure of identities and derived from network of roles,
statuses and norms of the individual’s subcultures (Stryker, 1980).  The networks provide a structure of
interpersonal interaction and thus a way to locate, define and identify
individuals.  The identities of the
individual are used to be organized symbolic meaning which relation the
individual social structure.

            From
the recent collected data from Toposophy found that the top prompted consumer’s
decision to choose the tropical fruits which never been tried before is based
on recommendation from their trusted inner circle, such as peers and family
(Manolis, 2014).  Since the opinion of
consumer’s reference group have great impact on consumer’s decision
making.  This is also become the concern
of the local tropical fruits market should provide a good services to their
customer and in order to increase the positive reviews and feedback for the
customer who will be coming in the future to make the purchase. 

            According
to Scheinkman (2008) claimed that social interaction is refer to particular
information exchange and communication, verbally or non-verbally, in which the
actions of a reference group influence a person’s preferences.  The consumers are more rely on the
information given by their peers.  Hence,
if the good reviews of the tropical fruits are given, the consumer’s purchase
intention towards the fruits is increase too. Each person’s behaviour change
not only because the direct influence of fundamentals, but also due to the
change of their peers (Scheinkman, 2008). 
This indirect effect is known as social multiplier which aggregate
relationship that would overstate individual elasticity (Glaeser, Sacerdote
& Scheinkman, 2003).  The social
multiplier existing at any social activities that there is a positive social
interaction.  When an individual choose
destination, the presence of these interaction is result on segregation across
space (Schelling, 1971).  It is proved
that individuals have different reaction with the presence behaviour of others.

            Visitor
Information Centres (VICs) is the first place that could enhance friendly
culture to welcome the visitors to a destination. VICs should able enhance the
interaction between visitors and visitor destination through well-prepared
communication mediums for tourist information (Deert, Jago, Mistilis, D’Ambra,
Richards & Carson, 2007).  It is able
the visitors having quality information exchange with the local people and
hence increase the attention for certain promoting tourism products or services
that being developed by the destination. 
According to Sheldon (1997) stated that the model of tourism information
exchange include three main agents, which are supplier, travel intermediaries
and visitors.  All the related
information sought by consumer within model. 
Those information is collected by intermediaries or directly by the
suppliers which enable enhance the quality of information.

ii. Electronic Word-of-Mouth

            eWOM
is a concept of word-of-mouth through electronic form, it is transfer through
an informal way among the different individual. 
It exchange the information among the consumers through internet.  The information which is exchange between the
consumer are such as their own perception and preferences about certain
tropical fruits which is available at the certain place.  This type of word-of-mouth can enhance the
purchase intention on specific tropical fruits especially rare tropical fruits
which can only buy in Sarawak.  According
to Dellarocas (2003), the basic of internet differs from mass communication is
its bi-directional nature, which is the two way communication among electronic
users.  These messages and information
obtained from friends, family, and acquaintances are very important which might
affect the consumers’ purchase intention towards tropical fruits in Kuching,
Sarawak.  Consumers would seek related
information online and interact with those people who have eaten those fruits.  They might take those comments as advice to
judge the fruits.  This explanation is
especially for some of the special fruits which can only found in Sarawak but
no other states in Malaysia.  Since
Sarawak has more landmass of natural forest compare to other states, many
delicious fruits can be founded at Sarawak. 
Those information obtain from the internet may be wrong.  So, the information brings the form of
objective messages in addition to subjective personal opinion and
experiences.  It may bring bad impacts or
positive impacts toward those specific fruits in Kuching, Sarawak.  This is because everyone has different
preferences of taste compare to others.

Through the advance of technology,
the channel of communication is changed and become more active “in the
air”.  In the traditional way, people
interact with other by face-to-face, exchanging letter, even getting
information from newspaper, televisions and some related articles that had been
published.  Now, people can interact with
people “in the air”, they can virtually “face-to-face” chatting with their
peers with internet, they can send millions of messages to the worlds with
internet, by the ways, they also can obtain unlimited information in the
internet data world.  According to the
Hawkins, Best, and Coney (2004), the practice allows users to share information
and experiences that direct buyers towards and away from specify good, brands
and services is known as Word-of-Mouth (WOM) communication.  Recently, WOM was defined as face-to-face
communication about products or brands between consumers (Carl, 2006).  However, Westbrook (1987) described WOM which
include all informal communication directed at other consumers about the
particular brands, product and services. 
The informal information is not clearly defining in his study but he is
indicated that the communication is opposed through mass media channels that
given product information from sellers. 
Buttle (1998) claimed that WOM can be facilitated by internet.  Based on definition of Westbrook (1987),
electronic Word-of-Mouth can defined as all informal communication directed at
users through internet-based technology related to particular brands, products
and services.  This includescommunication
among consumers and with producers, two parties are both integral parts of the
WOM flow (Goldsmith 2006; Lazarsfeld, Berelson, & Gaudet, 1944).

            Bruyn
and Lilien (2008) stated that the electronic Word-of-Mouth (eWOM) is a
significant phenomenon that sellers have tried to exploit the possible profits
and values through efficiency of viral marketing.  This is because the internet is an important
tool to enhance the interconnection among consumers.  The effectively of online is the customer
reviews as a platforms which promoted by the sellers websites for all users
share the information and experiences more easily than ever before (Bruyn &
Lilien, 2008).