We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now



5.1  Conclusions


Every organization try to endorse that stabilized structure so INVOTECH
EXCEL FZCO is also analyzing its environment and willing to make such mechanism
in which employees learn consistently to achieve equilibrium state in the
organization. Resistance to change is vital factor in the way to get
equilibrium state so INVOTECH EXCEL FZCO is determined to identify resistance
factors and finding solution to overcome them


From the results we can
conclude that the mean value obtained is 3.06, which is greater than 3. So
it reveals that the respondents are unfavorable towards the forces for
change, participation is not only enough for successful change therefore
other factors must be kept in mind while making change in company.
A good level of
communication between employees and organization helps to implement the
change, the mean value obtained is 3.09, and therefore the respondents are
dissatisfied with the relationship with the top management.
Good leadership and
commitment is also important for change management as change management
will help employees to understand the importance of change, the mean value
obtained is 2.63. So it reveals that the respondents are favorable towards
the top management takes step to overcome the resistance.
Participation of employees
in decision is important factor in change management; the mean value obtained
is 3.26 therefore the respondents are dissatisfied with the take part in
decision making process.



5.2  Recommendations



Top management should behave like leaders to
overcome the hurdles to improve the performance of organization over all and
employees specifically. INVOTECH EXCEL FZCO is trying to maintain
equilibrium state of organizational structure, managers should make steps to
synchronize internal and external environment. Employees seek their interests
in present and future organizational structure, so communication, motivation,
involvement and participation of employees with employees is essential for
successful implementation.

Following are some
recommendations to adopt for successful implementation of change.


Employees are motivated with rewards and other
initiatives to help them participate and accept the change, organization should
take initiatives regarding rewards to improve the mean level of 3.06, show
dissatisfaction level and indicator that employees understand that change will
not favor them.

A good level of communication between employees
and organization helps to implement the change, in communication factor mean
achieved 3.09 indicate poor communication, it should be improved the
communication level in the organization.

Participation of employees in decision is an
important factor in change management; the mean value obtained is 2.63 (3.00
approximately) therefore the respondents are dissatisfied with the take part in
decision making process. It should be improved for organizational successful
implementation of change.

If employees trust the organization then it will
be easier for management to implement change in the organization. Study trust
mean value 3.22 indicates the poor level of trust, should be improved by trust
increasing steps. Trust main failure issue is already implemented changes.

If employees are given proper training and
proper information and knowledge) is shared with employees then it will be
easier to implement change.

motivated employees have potential to increase productivity, positively achieve
goals and increase the efficiency and effectiveness of organization. Personal
commitment of respondents mean value 3.30 indicates that they want to take part
in successful change process. Taking part in decision making increase the
motivational level of the employees, agree level with mean value 3.30 indicates
that decision making is carried out on higher levels only. The average value of
these factors is 3.30 which also indicate lower motivational level and decision
making participation level. Increase the motivational level with the help of
organizational motivation increasing steps.

Least but not last company management should
Plan a clear strategy and number or different approaches according to situation
to formulate a way how change can be effectively implemented in organization.
It also includes negotiation and
training with employees.


Improvement is the essential part of every system of any organization. So
due to some limitations study work was restricted. Some reasons are given

spam was shot for completion of work

literacy rate matters to successful study.

size was a major limitation.


Alas, R.
&Vadi, M. (2006). The Employees’ Attitudes and Their Connections with
the Organizational Culture in the Process of Change in the Estonian
Organizations. Baltic Journal of Management, 1(1), 49-66.
S.H., Everard, A. & Hung, L. (1999). Strategic Down-sizing. Management
Decision, 37(7), 535-552.
Armenakis, A.
, A. (1999). Organizational Change: A Review of Theory and
Research in the 1990s. Journal of Management, 2(3), 293-315.
Atkinson, P.
(2005). Managing Resistance to Change. Management Services, 49(1), 14-19.
C. (1996). Designing for Change: A Practical Guide for Business
Transformation. New York: John Wiley. Boojihawon, D. & Segal-Horn, S.
(2006). Unit 1 Introduction: Strategy: study guide for MBA B820.
Milton-Keynes: Open University.
Bovey, W.,
, A. (2001). Resistance to OrganizationalChange: The Role of
Cognitive and Affective Processes. Leadership& Development Journal,
22(8), 372-382.
Bryman, A.
& Bell, E. (2007). Business Research Methods (2nded.). New
York: Oxford University Press.
Burnes, B.
(2004). Emergent Change and Planned Change -Competitors or Allies?
International Journal of Operations& Production Management, 24(9),
By, R.T.
(2007). Ready or not. Journal of Change Management,7(1), 3-11. Retrieved
in January. 30, 2011 from [email protected]
Chirico, F.
, C. (2008). Knowledge Integration and Dynamic Organizational
Adaptation in Family Firms. Family Business Review, 21(2), 169-181.
Coch, L.,
& French, J.R.P., Jr. (1948). Overcoming Resistance to Change. Human
Relations, 1(4), 512 – 532.
Dawson, P.
(2003). Understanding Organizational Change: The Contemporary Experience
of People at Work. London: Sage Publications.
Dirks, K.T.
, D.L. (2001). The Role of Trust in Organizational Setting.
Organizational Science, 12(4), 450-467.
S.M., Gallois, C., Sanders, B.C., , N. (2006).Finding Common
Ground in Team-Based Qualitative Research Using the Convergent
Interviewing Method. Qualitative Health Research, 16(8), 1145-1157.
Dunphy, D.,
, D.A. (1993). The Strategic Management of Corporate Change.
Human Relations, 46(8), 905-920.







Ertürk, A.
(2008). A Trust-Based Approach to Promote Employees’ Openness to
Organizational Change in Turkey. International Journal of Manpower, 29(5),
Folger, R.,
&Skarlicki, D. (1999). Unfairness and Resistance to Change: Hardship
as Mistreatment. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 35-50.
Frahm, J.,
& Brown, K. (2007). First Steps: Linking Change Communication to
Change Receptivity. Journal of organizational change management, 20(3),
Gilmore, T.,
Shea, G., &Useem, M. (1997). Side Effects of Corporate Cultural
Transformations. Journal of AppliedBehavioural Science, 33, 174-189.
Gilson, L.,
Palmer, N., & Schneider, H. (2005). Trust and Health Worker
Performance: Exploring Framework Using South African Evidence. Social
Science & Medicine, 61(7), 1418-1429.
R., & Hidings, C.R. (1988). Organizational Design Types, Tracks and
the Dynamics of Strategic Change. Organizational Studies, 9, 293-316.
Greasing, P.
(2000). Talk to Me. Human Resource Magazine,45(3), 66-70 and 72-74.
Hammer, M.,
&Champney, J. (1993). Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for
Business Revolution. New York: Harper Business.
T. (2010). The Implementation of a Clear Change Management Plan Assists
Employee in Remaining Committed to the Organization. Master’s degree in
Business Administration, Graduate School of Business Leadership,
University of South Africa.
Herzberg, F.
(1968). One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees? Harvard Business
Review (Jan/Feb), 53-62.
L. (2003). Resistance to Organizational Change: Toward a Multidimensional
Conceptualization. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of
Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
Hickins, M.
(1998). Running the change Gaunlet. Management Review, 87(11), 7.
Israel, G.D.
(1992). Sampling the Evidence of Extension Program Impact. Program
Evaluation and Organizational Development, IFAS, University of Florida.
Jones, G.
& George, J. (1998). The Experience and Evolution of Trust:
Implications for Cooperation and Teamwork. Academy of Management Review,
23(3), 531-546.
Judge, W.
& Douglas, T. (2009). Organizational Change Capacity: The Systematic
Development of a Scale. Journal ofOrganizational Change Management, 22(6),
Kitchen, P.J.
& Daly, F. (2002). Internal Communication during Change Management.
Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 7(1).
Kotter, J.
(1996). Leading Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
S. (2009). Understanding Perceived Organizational Identity during Crisis
and Change: A Threat/Opportunity Framework. Journal of Organizational
Change Management, 22(5), 494-510.
R.V., & Morgan, D.W. (1970). Determining Sample Size for Research
Activities. Educational and Psychology Measurement, 30(3), 607-610.
Leana, C.R.,
& Barry, B. (2000). Stability and Change as Simultaneous Experiences
in Organizational Life. Academy of Management Review, 25(4), 753-759.
Lewin, K.
(1951). Field Theory in Social Science. New York: Harper and Row.
Lewin, K.
(1958). Group Decision and Social Change. In E.E.Maccoby, T.M. Newcomb,
and E.L. Hartley (eds), Reading in Social Psychology (197-211). New York:
Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Lines, R.
(2004). Influence of Participation in Strategic Change: Resistance,
Organizational Commitment and Change Goal Achievement. Journal of Change
Management, 4(3), 193-215.
Mabin, V.,
Forgeson, S., & Green, L. (2001). Harnessing Resistance: Using the
Theory of Constraints to Assist Change Management. Journal of European
Industrial Training,25(2-4), 168-191.
Manville, B.,
& Oberg, J. (2003). Company of Citizens: What the World’s First
Democracy Teaches Leaders About Creating Great Organizations. Boston:
Harvard Business School Press.
McNabb, D.E.,
&Sepic, F.T. (1995). Culture, Climate, and Total Quality Management.
In Mathias, R. L. & Jackson, J. H.(2004), Human Resource Management
(10th ed.). Australia: Thomson / South-Western.
Martin, A.,
Jones, E., &Callan, V. (2006). Status Differences in Employee
Adjustment during Organizational Change. Journal of Managerial Psychology,
21(2), 145-162.
Miller, V.D.,
Johnson, J.R., &Grau, J. (1994). Antecedents to Willingness to
Participate in Planned OrganizationalChange. Journal of Applied
Communications Research,22, 59-80.
Mullins, L.J.
(2007). Management and OrganizationalBehaviour (8th ed.). Harlow: England
Prentice Hall.
Mordant, M.,
Gersten, R., Gillman, J., Keating, T., & Blake, G.(1995).
Attrition/Retention of Urban Special Education Teachers: Multi-Faceted
Research and Strategies Action Planning. Final performance report, 1.
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 338154).
Nadler, D.A.,
&Tushman, M.L. (1998). OrganizationalFrame Bending: Principles for
Managing Reorientation. Academy of Management Executive, 3, 194-204.
I.P. (2005). Fundamentals of Research Methods and Statistics. Lagos: Sibon
Books Limited.
Oreg, S.
(2006). Personality, Context, and Resistance to Organizational Change.
European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 15(1), 73-101.
Ott, J.S.
(1996). Classic Readings in Organizational Behavior(2nd ed.). CA:
Wadsworth Publishing Company.
W.A., &Fagans, M.R. (1992). Participation, Individual Development, and
Organizational Change: A Review and Synthesis. Journal of Management, 18,
Paulsen, N.,
Callan, V.J., Grice, T., Rooney, D., Gallois, C.,Jones, E., Bordia, P.,
&Jimmesion, N. (2005). Job Uncertainty and Personal Control During
Downsizing: A Comparison of Survivors and Victims. Human Relations, 58(4),463-496.
Piderit, S.K.
(2000). Rethinking Resistance and Recognizing Ambivalence: A
Multidimensional View of Attitudes Toward An Organizational Change.
Academy of Management,(Nov), 783-794.
Rock, D.,
&Donde, R. (2008). Driving OrganizationalChange with Internal Coaching
Programmes: Part Two. Industrial and Commercial Training, 40(2), 75-80.
D.M., Sitkin, S.B., Burt, R.S., Camerer, C. (1998).Not so Different after
All: A Cross-Discipline View of Trust. Academy of Management Review,
23(3), 393-404.
Saunders, M.,
Lewis, P., &Thornhill, A. (2007). Research Methods for Business
Students. England: Pearson Professional Limited.



























Questionnaire for Employees’ Resistance towards Organizational


In order to help our case study,
please complete this questionnaire and return it to me  in soft or hard copy via
email or post.

(Please select one answer from
below questions and tick mark in the box which best suites your answer)


S #


Strongly Agree




Strongly Disagree






Organizational Factors


In my organization the reasons for making this change
have not been made clear.







organization does not communicate the clear vision of how things will look
after change.







Our top leaders are not effective change managers.







The purpose and objectives of the change have not been
made clear.







Obstacles that could derail the implementation of the
change have not been identified.







my organization there is no any system to address the obstacles in
implementation of change







The nature of the work in my work unit is not compatible
with the change.







The way people currently think and behave in my work unit
will not be compatible with the change.







People in my work unit will not be receptive to
supporting the change.







Top leadership is not committed to the success of the







We have not necessary resources in my work unit to
achieve the change goals.







Our performance management system does not supports the
change objectives (e.g., behaviors that support the change are not
recognized, team and individual performance goals related to the change are
not set and monitored).







Top management’s actions are not consistent with the
change objectives.







People in my work unit have not enough knowledge/skills
necessary to achieve our work unit’s change-related goals.







People in my work unit do not believe that change, in
general, is important for our continued success.







Previous changes at Company have not been well managed.






Personal Factors


Participation in decision making
I don’t understand the things I will need to do
differently to support the change.







and knowledge exchange
I don’t understand what my role will be in achieving my
work unit’s change goals.







I have not enough knowledge/skills necessary to do my
part in achieving my work unit’s change-related goals.







I have the time needed to fulfill my role in the change
and also keep up with my regular workload.







I am not personally committed to making the change a







I have no opportunities to express my opinion about the
change and make suggestions.







My opinions and suggestions about the change are not
listened to and not given fair consideration.







I do not receive honest and accurate information about
the change and its impact.







I am not involved in change-related decisions that affect







I have no resources that I need to achieve change-related







The proposed change will not have a positive impact on my







The proposed change will not have a positive impact on my
career opportunities at this company.







I do not believe that the proposed change is necessary
and worthwhile.







I have no access that I need to key decision makers.















Last Degree Obtained…………………………


Organization Name……………………………