CHAPTER of pupils with autism is having difficulty

CHAPTER I

The Problem and Its Background

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Introduction

Inclusive
education has been adopted as the latest trend of the world.  United Nations and every individual country
have their own version of legal bases for their students with special
needs. 

One of the
challenges that educators are facing is the mastery of lesson especially for
student with special needs.  Among the
students with special needs, children with autism in the Philippines has the
biggest school population next to intellectual disability as surveyed by
Department of Education for school year 2012-2013. 

In their
study, Center to Autism Research Road Map by the Children’s Hospital of
Philadelphia, intellectual disability and autism is greatly related.  Based on their research high percentage of
individuals with autism spectrum disorder has intellectual disability. 

Thus the
need for an instructional material that will aid them in learning and mastery
is much needed, if not a requirement.

Another
challenge that the students with autism is facing is the language and speech
development.  English is essential in
everyday life activities and most educational opportunities and careers require
English knowledge, thus it is vital that pupils with autism receive instruction
that leads to improvement in the subject.

Teachers
sometimes find it difficult to meet their pupils’ needs due to their uniqueness
in school. One characteristic of pupils with autism is having difficulty in
interacting to others which has an impact on their lives. For pupils with
autism this specialized program is indeed a big help. Teachers are responsible
for managing their own classroom with the use of Computer-assisted
instructional materials.

Computer-assisted instructional material is
one of the essential tools in teaching. It is a kind of program that can be
presented into different technological gadgets. It promotes different skills
for all students and enhances e great ideas and excites pupils through good
sounds/music, colorful and creative animated pictures and other attractive
elements of designs. It allows students to enhance their own skills and improve
their socialization by working on a group. Computer-assisted instructional
materials can be used in different subject areas; one of this is English
subject.

This instructional material will be engaging
and fun for the pupils with autism, while learning at their paced.  The practical application of the lesson
learned will help them to be successful to in their social aspect, much more
their communication with their peers, family and community.

The purpose of this study is to explore the
importance of Computer-assisted instructional material and to attain useful techniques on classroom
structure with the utilization of this program by Sped Teachers in the Division
of Bacoor City, Cavite.  The output of
this study hopes to assist not only the students with autism, but the teachers,
school administration and future researchers as well.

Theoretical Framework

     This
study will be based on the theory of Albert Bandura’s Social Cognitive.  According to Bandura, individuals possess a
self-system that enables them to exercise a measure of control over their
thought, and action, feelings, motivation.

     Bandura
considered self-reflection the most uniquely human capability because
individuals can evaluate their own experiences and thought processes. 

Since children with autism have a language
development difficulty in practical and social context, the social cognitive
theory will be the guide in laying the foundation of the research.  The theory will laid the foundation for the
practical social communication of pupils with autism, using English as a medium
of communication, instruction and lesson.

     Mayer(2011)
made the “multimedia principle”, state that “people learn more deeply from
words and pictures than from words alone”. 
This explains that learning process is effective if different aspect of
learner’s capability will be used.  This
may include the sight, hearing, touch and social aspect.  The effectiveness of this theory will be
tested the learner’s learning preference. 

The goal of instructional materials is to
bring out the best in every learner by guiding them and giving them time to
learn at their individual pace, without any hesitation.  The presentation of the material will be
engaging to the learners if it presented in the way that magnify their strength
and mitigate their weakness making them successful in their life’s achievement.

Mayer’s cognitive theory of multimedia
learning presents the idea on the effect of using technology in teaching, in
that the brain functions by organizing and selecting into the lesson presented
into a logical mental construct

It is on this premise that the theoretical
framework served as the anchorage of the study which further elucidated conceptual
framework utilizing the Input-Process-Output (IPO) as a model in the conduct of
investigation.