CHAPTER It is a cheap-friendly welding shield that

CHAPTER 2   LITERATURE REVIEW   2.1 PROJECT FUNDAMENTALS & THEORY  According to Jamy Bulan, (2015), welding helmet is “one of the most important pieces of personal protective equipment a welder can have. A good helmet protects the eyes and skin not only from severe sparks but also from potentially vision-damaging ultraviolet and infrared rays emitted by the arc.” Based on this statement, welding helmet or welding mask is one of the most important safety equipment which welder must wear when undergoing welding process.It also protect eyes and skin of welder from become harmful and injured.  Finch,Richard,Welder’s Handbook (2007) says, ” provide a degree of eye protection while some forms of welding and cutting are being done. They are intended to protect the eyes not only from the heat and optical radiation produced by the welding, such as the intense ultraviolet light produced by an electric arc, but also from sparks or debris. A full face mask may be required for arc welding.” According to this statements, welding mask not only protect our face from spark or heat, it also defence our skin from radiation which are produce during welding process.     2.1.1 Welding Shield with Flip-Up Lens  Figure 2.1: Welding Shield with Flip-up Lens Welding Shield with Flip-Up Lens is design to meet a variety of welding jobs. It is a cheap-friendly welding shield that give the convenience of an adjustable fit. The helmet has a flip-up front that provides a viewing area of 4.5 x 2 inch. The flip front makes the removal process quite hassle-free and this shield is commonly used by a welder to doing their job.    2.1.2 Handle Type Welding Mask Figure 2.2: Handle Type Welding Mask (Logdar Plastic, 2014)   Handle type welding mask is welding shield type which are not have the grip for the head. The welder just need to hold the handle during undergoing welding process. It is very simple and easy to be used because the user can simply slightly move in variable direction when doing welding process. This also one of the common welding shield which are commonly used by welder and easily get it from the hardware store.         2.1.3 Welding Shield Fixed Lens Figure 2.3: Welding Shield Fixed Lens (Amazon, 2010) Welding shield fixed lens it is same with welding shield with flip-up lens. But the different is it lens cannot be adjustable or be move. The lens is fixed together with the helmet. Only the lens glass can be remove if the glass having crack or the vision is not clear for the welder to perform a work. It is very cheap and this type one of the type usually welder are used during undergoing welding process.   2.1.4 Auto Darkening Filter Mask  Figure 2.4 Auto Darkening Welding Mask According to Jamy Bulan, (Commercial Equipment Product Manager,, 2015) says, ” Serious professional welders should consider using more advanced auto-darkening helmets with continuously variable controls that adjust the shade from a light state to a dark one and back. These helmets protect from harmful light emissions at all times and darken to a almost any pre-selected shade in milliseconds, thanks to quick-changing LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) technology in the auto-darkening cartridges.With auto-darkening helmets, welders can see clearly while the helmet is already in a down position, so that setting up to weld in a weldment joint can be done with the hood in position. These helmets permit more continuous work, reducing unnecessary stop-and-start time and the need for a welder to readjust a helmet and set up positioning.” Based on this statement we can conclude that the auto darkening welding mask is modern version of welding mask compare with the traditional mask which is very useful and equip with a lot of safety design to promote a good work to the welder. Provide with auto darkening filter to protect the eyes of welder from accept the ray of the welding spark. Nowadays, this helmet is widely are used in industry and more recommended by welder compare to other welding mask version.      2.1.5 Main Component of Project Arduino UNO R3   Figure 2.5: Arduino Uno R3Arduino UNO R3 is one of the family of Arduino and the latest version production. This arduino can be said that it is the brain of the whole system of this project. It can control any parts of the whole project. For example, the gas sensor which are used to detect the harmful gases around the welder workplace can be controlled by the main controller because the controller will receive the gas which are detected by the sensor and transmit the signal to trigger the alarm.According from Polulo, Robotic & electronic (2013), “The Arduino Uno R3 microcontroller board based on a removable, dual-inline-package (DIP) ATmega328 AVR microcontroller. It has 20 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs and 6 can be used as analog inputs). Programs can be loaded on to it from the easy-to-use Arduino computer program. The Arduino has an extensive support community, which makes it a very easy way to get started working with embedded electronics. The R3 is the third, and latest, revision of the Arduino Uno.” This mean it can easily support all the component electronic which are be used in this project. It also have USB connection which to transfer the programing command to control the component of the project. Transmitter and Receiver   Figure 2.6: 2.4G Wireless Transceiver Module Arduino This Wireless Transceiver Module Arduino is used as the transmitter and receiver component on this project. A transmitter is transfer the signal from a sensor or switch to the main controller. The receiver is the main controller which is receive the output signal from the sensor and convert it to the data. LCD Screen Figure 2.7:LCD Display Module Arduino   The LCD display module Arduino are function to show a variety of output reading from the component which are connected to the Arduino. For example, the LCD are display the value of level of gases which are produce at the welder workplace by receive a signal from the gas sensor. This LCD also allow a person to monitor and tell the exactly reading from the sensor component. Gas Sensor MQ-2  Figure 2.8 : Gas Sensor MQ-2Gas sensor MQ-2 is one of the Arduino component which function indicate the gas leakage at home and industry. MQ-2 can detect and sensitive a smoke, LPG, flammable and combustible gases. This sensor is works when the output voltage from sensor is increase when concentration of gases is increase. This is one of the gas sensor will be use in this project. Gas Sensor MQ-7 Figure 2.9: Gas Sensor MQ-7 The gas sensor MQ-7 is works same with MQ-2 but the different is it will detect a carbon Monoxide gas. Carbon monoxide is one of the harmful gases which are form in welding process and this gas are very dangerous especially for welder itself. Gas Sensor MQ 131 Figure 2.10: Gas Sensor MQ-131The gas sensor MQ-131 is function to detect the ozone. Ozone also one of the product form from welding process which can effects include fluid in the lungs and haemorrhaging. MQ-131 is one of the sensor that will be used in this project.   2.2 STUDY ON RECENT RESEARCH AND RELATED PRODUCT   There are many gas detection gadget are widely used in industry nowadays. One of the industry is commonly used the gas detection are oil and gas sector. This because there are working and producing a dangerous chemical which the workers are work in hazardous environment. Very important to them to have the gadget which can detect and alerting warning signal if they are too exposure of hazardous gas or gas leakage happen at their work plant.             2.2.1 Gas Badge Pro Gas Detector    Figure 2.11: Gas Badge Pro Gas Detector   Create to meet industrial scientific greatest reliability and quality standards, Gas Badge Pro give a lifetime of gas hazard defence with more characteristics than any other single gas monitor available. Interchangeable “smart” sensors enable the Gas Badge  Pro to be guile adapted to monitor unsafe levels of oxygen or any of the subsequent toxic gases: carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen dioxide, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, phosphine, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide.  2.2.2 Crowcon Clip Gas Monitor    Figure 2.12: Crowcon Clip Gas Monitor   Clip Single Gas Detector (SGD) is device focusing on hazardous areas. It is applicable  for hydrogen sulphide, oxygen, or carbon monoxide  2.2.3 ToxiRae 3 Single Gas Detector   Figure 2.13: ToxiRae 3 Single Gas Detector The ToxiRae 3 is a full figured one gas monitor that provide unbalance cost of takeover value. It is adaptable with the AutoRae Lite bump and calibration station. low and high alarms can also be reported. Gas detect includes hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide.         2.3 COMPARISON BETWEEN RECENT RESEARCH AND CURRENT PROJECT This comparison of this Personal Safety and Protective System between Gasbadge Pro Gas Detector based on related article is that it improved by adding some safety features which can guide the welder to their safety at workplace.        GasBadge Pro Gas DetectorCriteria Personal Safety and Protective System (Current Project) No sensor to indicate improper wearing PPE  Safety  Available with sensor to detect improper of wearing PPE Detect wide range of gas type  gas type  Only have a few gas can be detect   Only require 3V battery  Power supplyThis Personal Safety and Protective System require power supply of AC or DC to power up all the equipment which is most of the component are consist from electronic part.   Only detect the gas & cannot cut the power supply    Functionality This Personal Safety and Protective System equip with cut-off switch to turn off the power supply at welding machine if the welder a not wearing welding mask. To power up the welding machine, welder must wear the welding mask properly so the sensor can transmit signal to the power cut-off switch to power up the welding machine.  85 gram  Weight Approximate weight 1kg High Cost  Cost Low CostTable 2.1 comparison between project and current product