Multinationals vice versa. Goal setting theory proposes

Multinationals have entered into domestic markets and forced local companies to strategize on how they can enter foreign markets so as to remain relevant in the market. There is also the need for flexibility of strategies such as product and pricing strategies in relation to changes in consumer needs. In light of these changes in modern markets, management is now defined as the process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling resources so as to enable achievement of organizational objectives.

In a situation where a first line manager seeks to gain from the demise of his manager, it is important that the promotion process takes place in a just manner. If the first line manager refuses to warn his manager of a looming problem in the making, then when the manager ends up being fired it is the doing of his juniors. It is therefore morally wrong for subordinates to seek promotion by sabotaging the careers of their bosses. If a first line manager advices his boss such that failure is avoided, he/ she will receive good recommendation.

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The Hawthorne experiment was conducted by Elton Mayo to try and find out what affects productivity of employees. Mayo had perceived that the working conditions such as lighting was what affected productivity. The Hawthorne experiment however revealed that recognition and appreciation of employees was the underlying factor that can lead to increased performance.

The expectancy theory explains how employees work hard to increase their performance when they expect that their efforts will be repaid by rewards that they value. Equity theory explains that employees compare how they are rewarded with the way other personnel of the same rank are paid for dispensing the same amount of effort. If they find that others are paid more, they get demotivated and vice versa.

Goal setting theory proposes that employees get motivated when there are challenging and objective goals that their efforts are directed towards achieving. Reinforcement theory on the other hand looks at behaviours of employees. It explains that managers can promote desired behaviour by rewarding employees who practise them and punishing those who practise undesired behaviour.

Between theory X, Y and Z, theory Y is the best approach when motivation of employees is sought. Theory Y is more objective in achieving high performance. This approach appreciates the potential of employees and seeks to work together with them towards the achievement of organizational objectives.

Having a diverse workforce can work to the advantage of an organization if managed well. A diversified workforce signifies the potential of an organization to learn from different cultures and to explore the markets represented by their members. Conflict management, team building and employee participation are valuable tools that create competitive advantage where there is a diversified workforce.

CEO compensation should be limited by law given that it beats logic to pay people who have not worked. The law should give employers the benefit of only rewarding employees or former employees for the work they perform. If for some reason an employee is not able to fulfil his obligations without the organization frustrating his/ her efforts, termination of the contractual agreement should also include withdrawal of monetary benefits.

If members of a union do not work together, they cannot achieve the purposes set forth by the union. During a strike action, it is important and ethical that all employees boycott the agreed action so that the employers can take the employees’ claims seriously. If some employees still go to work and work as usual, this attempts to show that the striking workers are not disciplined and so is unfair to colleagues.