The xylose pathway genes would comprise of new tools for the insertion of foreign genes and knocking out genes. The on-the-site handling of the feedstock raw materials before the enzyme hydrolysis process would help in optimizing the designed enzyme. Yields of Biofuel The DDCE Company’s cellulosic ethanol yields currently enjoy loans guarantees for the construction. The bio-products of the biofuel production process include refined fertilizers and pure water.
The entire DDCE process converts the renewable biomass to ethanol for fuel while the lignocelluloses makes up the overall structure of the plant and so is broken down into smaller sugar components that are then converted into ethanol in readiness for the actual use for fuel. The DuPont has developed a pre-treatment technology which opens the designed polymers for the access of the enzymes in the biofuel yielding process. Sissell (2008, pp. 4-97) elaborates that during the saccharification process, the enzymes are the danisco enzymes are broken down to cellulose and hemicelluloses into their respective sugars.
The biomass then leaves the sacrifiers after being transformed to hydrolysates. At the fermentation stage, the DuPont technology ferments sugars to ethanol. Subsequently, separation of energy’s by-products is undertaken while the ethanol is then distilled to the desired fuel grade ethanol (Scruggs and Paul 2009, pp. 998-1176). Filtration, distillation, and storage are the conclusive procedures undertaken before shipment of the fuel grade through the fuel supply transportation system is done. Biomass is ground to smaller sizes before entering the conversion process.
There are a number of unique characteristics that dissociate biofuel from the petro fuel. To begin with, biofuel is renewable source of energy while petrol fuel is not. This makes it more preferred in terms of its sustainability and lifespan. Secondly, unlike the usage of petrol fuel, biofuel helps in the reduction of carbon dioxide from 60 to more than more than 100%b through the absorption of the carbon dioxide. It has a relatively low lose incurred in the conversion process to ethanol and a high tolerance to hydrolysate.
Biofuel utilizes mobilis which has a high yield of ethanol as well as a high tolerance to the ethanol products (Sissell 2008, pp. 4-97). The tolerance is in excess of about 100 g/l. These characteristics make the organism quite favorable compared to engineered yeast strains and petrol fuel. In the production process and during its actual use, biofuel saves carbon dioxide and also provides for a balance in the environmental energy. The production of biofuel is done within short residence times. Biofuel, based on the DDCE technology would undergo various pretreatment steps in order to dilute the ammonia process.
The ammonia would then easily be recycled thus keeping the output costs relatively low. Moreover, since ammonia is easily dispersed within the preprocessed biomass, low concentrations allows for its usage at low pressures and temperatures and can also be used at low concentrations, and at low temperature and pressure. The biofuel from the DDCE Company is more environmentally friendly, is renewable, and also produces much less CO2 compared to petrol fuel. Economics and Environmental and Social Issues Sustainability is fully enhanced by the DDCE Company which has purposed to realize a sustainable environment friendly system.
DDCE attempts to break the boundaries by ensuring that more environmentally friendly fuel is availed to the world population and the more than one billion vehicles. Through the development of a rigorous stakeholder engagement, sustainability efforts would be validated to ensure that only positive environment and social impacts are promoted. The bio-based economy contributes to the highly desired low carbon economy, the energy independence, green jobs, and the reinvigorated rural economies across borders (Sissell 2008, pp. 4-97).
Fig 3: Sustainability chart The biofuel production system utilizes all available products thus ensuring environmental conservation and reduction in the rates of the previous environmental degradation. The use of the life cycle assessment tool (LCA) encourages environmental considerations to be made during the decision making process thus reducing the negative impact of the environmental implications of diverse bio-refinery options. The DDCE Company target is to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions against the gasoline production by 60%. Conclusion
From the above analysis of the Dupont Danisco Cellulosic Ethanol, it is evident that biofuel provides a number of benefits that are more convenient, efficient, and cost effective and hence a better future is assured for the energy sector. Using the second generation technology, the company converts ethanol fuel, which is a renewable energy source, to electrical energy in order to supplement the limited fuel sources in existence.
Hammerschlag, R 2006, ‘Ethanol energy investment return: A survey of literature from the 1999 to the present day,’ Environmental science and technologies, 40, 389-397. http://www.mhprofessional.com/product.php?isbn=0071487492