Asmaa with the prevalence of being exposed to

Asmaa Farah

28 January 2018

Literature
Review

Traumatic
brain injury

            Traumatic
brain injuries are
defined as an alteration in brain function, or other evidence of brain
pathology, caused by an external force. Also, defined as one of the leading
cause of death. (Shears, C. A., 1997). Traumatic
brain injuries can happen due to several factors, such as car accidents, falls,
and tumors. However, there are some risk factors that is associated with the prevalence
of being exposed to a traumatic brain injury. Gender differences is one of the
factors that will be discussed in this review, beside the consequences along
with a traumatic brain injury; for example, cognitive impairments that consist
of visual and attention impairment as well as language impairment.

 

 Gender
differences

             A lot of traumatic brain injuries arise during
working hours due to the fact that occupational accidences happen a lot. As a
study investigated the prevalence of being exposed to a traumatic brain injury
at work, with the focus on the sex of the workers, the study showed that 57% of
the injuries involved males. (Colantonio et al., 2010). In agreement with the
researchers who states that most people who incur traumatic Brain injuries are
men (Bounds, Schopp, Johnstone, Unger & Goldman, 2003). Due
to the fact that men are more likely to work in industrial places or
manufactures. While women are mostly found in governmental positions.

Traumatic brain
injuries effects

Several
cognitive impairments are associated with traumatic brain injuries.  As (Heinly, 2007) stated that cognitive
impairments occur as a side effect to mild traumatic brain injuries more often.

In contrast, a study by Kolb and Whishaw showed that the severity of one of the
impairment is estimated based on the severity of the injury. For instance, (Barman, A., Chatterjee, A.,
& Bhide, R, 2016). asserts that Attention deficits are more commonly encountered in persons
with severe TBI, and may include difficulties in sustained
attention/concentration, delayed reaction time, distractibility, decreased
processing speed, and impaired dual or multitasking. In other words, whenever the severity of the
injury is high, it is more likely to exhibit sever impairments. On the other
hand, a population based study claim that the severity of the TBI is not a main
cause of these impairments. As the study concluded that people with prior TBI
are more likely to report sever impairments. In other word, people who have a
history with TBI are reasonably more likely to examine these side effects. (Dasher, G. H, 2003). The
effect of TBI also relates to the gender differences. The bases of (Williams,
V. G, 2005) research founded significant differences that attribute to gender
and even age categories. In other words, females perform better than men in neuropsychological
test performance. In agreement with this claim. (Halpern 2007). insist that
females perform better than male on tasks of memory impairments. Further
explanation is that sex difference has a significant impact on exhibiting mild
to severe side effect of traumatic brain injuries as well as the process of
recovery from a TBI.

            Reviewing the literature leads back
to the question: how does the severity of a traumatic brain injury can be
measured associated with the gender differences.