As hydraulic fracturing threatens New York City’s

As oil and natural gas reserves are withdrawn, new methods of exploitation are used to meet the higher demands for these resources. Hydraulic fracturing or “hydrofracking” is the process of injecting the ground with high volumes of water, sand and chemicals to release the natural gas that is found in Marcellus Shale. This method of obtaining natural gas is highly controversial due to its side effects and danger to the surrounding community. On one side, hydraulic fracturing creates jobs and economic independence that is beneficial to everyone involved. On the other hand, local residents near fracking sites have to deal with the system’s faults. Fracking has raised concerns as it has been known for: equipment causing heavy damage to the rural infrastructure, diverting water from municipalities and contaminating groundwater supplies, and leading to small earthquakes. At risk; The intense extraction of natural gas through hydraulic fracturing threatens New York City’s drinking water with disruption and contamination. New York will not revert back to hydraulic fracturing because of its detrimental negative effects on the environment and contamination of municipal water storages.Hydraulic fracturing was first introduced in 1949, first appearing in states such as Texas, Wyoming and Oklahoma. It has only recently become controversial because of the industry’s  migration to more populated states and the use of horizontal drilling. The Marcellus Shale, which lies underneath parts of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, and West Virginia is a natural gas bank that yields potential for highly profitable fracking. Fracking companies have started using horizontal drilling wells in the marcellus shale area. This method attains more natural gas with a single well, however, it also requires pumping a larger volume of water and toxic pollutants into the ground to extract the confined natural gas. “One would think that a country such as the US would have laws to protect the environment from toxic pollutants like these, but unfortunately the current laws are full of loopholes when it comes to fracking.”-Dr. Scott A. Elias, Professor of Quaternary Science in the Department of Geography of Royal Holloway, University of London. The Clean Water Act of 1972 excludes the pollutants that are pumped into the ground during fracking because it was believed that under negative pressure and the millions of tons of rock that the pollutants could never reach the surface. Current studies support the idea that pollutants properly injected during fracking would have no adverse effects on the environment. The only problem is that most fracking sites fail to properly inject the pollutants into the ground generally due to an inadequate seal that allows the contaminants to leak into the earth near the surface. A study conducted by the EPA correlated water contamination to hydraulic fracturing in the town of Pavillion, Wyoming; “EPA officials said that the contamination near the town of Pavillion, Wyoming, had seeped up from gas wells and contained at least 10 compounds known to be used in fracking fluids.”Fracking is known to be extremely destructive to the environment as well as unsafe for workers at the fracking sites. Ever since hydraulic fracturing was suspected of contaminating crucial water sources, it has gathered negative attention. Disputes between health risks and economic benefits continue as natural gas becomes more valuable. Residents in Wyoming living near Fracking wells started to complain about their water becoming very dirty and giving off a methane like smell. Encana, the company responsible for the wells in the area, insisted their presence near municipalities had nothing to do with the contamination. After numerous attempts  by the EPA to prove the correlation between Encana’s wells and the residents complaints, a study released in  2010 proved the Encana’s wells guilty. The sampling confirmed the contamination, and according to The Scientific American. “the EPA, along with federal health officials, cautioned residents not to drink their water and to ventilate their homes when they bathed because the methane in the water could cause an explosion.” Disputes on hydraulic fracturing broke out after evidence that it was contaminating drinking water became published. Even though major fracking companies such as Encana claim that toxic chemicals represent less than only 1% of  the hydrofracking fluid, the U.S. Geological Survey explains ” a typical 3 million gallon hydraulic fracture site typically produces 15,000 gallons of chemical waste.” In New York this waste is stored on-site in large holding ponds until trucks haul it away. Therefore disposal of wastewater is a problem because there are few disposal sites. Most of the state’s conventional drilling waste stays in New York and is sent to sewage-treatment plants or is used to de-ice roads or tamp down dust on them, according to state regulators. Currently in the state of New York, hydraulic fracturing is illegal due to the ban issued by Governor Andrew Cuomo. Previously, discussion of the fracking ban had been compromised with a moratorium on fracking. A statewide moratorium was issued to postpone the use of fracking in 2010 until further research could be suggest it’s practicality in New York.  Cuomo said, “the decision to formalize the state’s moratorium, was purely science-based”. Despite Cuomo’s seemingly effective solution to the fracking caused pollution, state officials expect the ban to be temporary because of the demand for natural gas “there are still billions of dollars of natural gas trapped underneath the most economically depressed areas of upstate New York. And the precedent set by Cuomo, in making New York the first state with a major shale deposit to prohibit the fracking,” Politica New York. the Elimination of  hydraulic fracturing in New York set by cuomo was a major decision, affecting millions of workers and consumers for better or for worse.Researchers cannot agree upon whether the benefits of fracking outweigh the costs. Research conducted by a group at Yale estimated that shale gas production contributes over $100 billion to US consumers annually.  Creating jobs, financially benefiting landowners, and lower gas prices have provided relief for people by lowering heat and electricity bills. While  researchers argue over the benefits, Some environmentalists are opposed to fracking because of its association to carbon emissions into the environment. Another very controversial argument is the air pollution fracking produces.  The United States has seen the most dramatic decline in carbon emissions of any country in the world over the past five years mainly because of  fracking. The Cheap natural gas has allowed many utilities the ability to replace burning coal for burning cleaner natural gas. While some see fracking as an alternative to traditional fuel, there are environmentalists that want to see the use of fossil fuels disappear completely. Overall, studies on fracking support its usefulness. Researchers agree that if done correctly, hydraulic fracturing is an effective more eco-friendly alternative to traditional fossil fuels, however, if done incorrectly can cause water contamination and the leakage of toxic pollutants into the environment.Hydraulic fracturing will always be controversial because of its drastic alteration of the environment it creates and the number of people that are affected by it. Fracking can benefit millions of people by lowering gas prices and bringing jobs to the state but it can also have a negative impact on the environment by contaminating valuable water sources. The Ban on fracking in New york will remain  in effect as long as it takes for the next major source of energy to be discovered. The negative effects of Fracking on people are to well known and too difficult to avoid for the state to allow further fracking in the future. The ban on Fracking will be permanent because of the  detrimental negative effects on the environment and contamination of municipal water storages that hydraulic fracturing causes..