As of today, more than 140 countries offer

As
of today, more than 140 countries offer or are in transition to K-12 education
system (Kindergarten to Grade 12). The program has become the international
norm for pre tertiary education because of the multiple of research emphasizing
the long-term learning and social benefits of school readiness programs. The 12
years of primary and secondary schooling acquire the knowledge and skills sets
necessary for 21st century university education, post secondary training, or
decent work.

 

              The reformation of the national
education to K–12 brings intensive need of resource such as consuming
technical, financial, and political resources. Thus, understanding the legal,
regulatory, and policy environment helps anticipate bottlenecks and chart a
pathway to implementation. There are three layers of the framework are
foundational, structural, and complementary policies (Sarvi et. al, 2015)

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              Foundational policies. These are found in national (provincial in
Ontario) development plans and define the core educational aspirations, provide
the rationale for transitioning to a K–12 structure, describe the major human
resource development agenda, and present the K–12 goals as they align with the
respective development agendas. For labor-exporting countries (Philippines and
Poland) there is the desire for trade and professional credentials to be
accepted in destination countries, and for labor-importing countries (Mongolia)
there is the desire to replace highly skilled imported professionals with
locals whose training and qualifications are just as good. For countries where
secondary school graduates might wish to attend foreign universities, there is
the need for their education credentials to be judged as equivalent (Sarvi et. al,
2015).

 

              Structural policies. These are the second layer in the policy
framework. Most case jurisdictions have restructured to a primary and secondary
configuration, with kindergarten included as part of the education system, and
secondary education divided into lower and upper levels. In the literature on
national education plans there are a number of conceptual descriptors that are
often used interchangeably and aligned with the structure of the education
system (Sarvi et. al, 2015).

 

              Complementary policies. These comprise issues that may be directly
or indirectly related to K–12 reform but are necessary for successful
implementation of the reform. Authority and responsibility for preparing
complementary policies depend upon the governance system in each jurisdiction.
For example, in Turkey the curriculum is developed centrally, while in Canada
curriculum development is the responsibility of the provinces and school boards
(Sarvi et. al, 2015).