As , “indeed, it calls for a rigorous

     As acknowledged by Candice Jenkins, a researcher on Hip-Hop and the Literary from Duke University , “indeed, it calls for a rigorous attention to rap’s language and to the genre itself as a particular kind of verbal artifact, one driven as much by aestheticized oral communication as by musical expression”  (Jenkins, 2013). Hip-hop and Literary studies focus on the message that hip-hop music portrays and the meaning of the diction. Society’s ability to function stimulates from being able to communicate and be expressive through different formats. American culture norms are seen to include patience and peacefulness (InterExchange, 2018). Hip-hop was centered around a self-expression for an artist, and a form of relatability for audiences; hip-hop incorporates an entire community including MCs (rappers), dancers, and graffiti artist. The controversy of hip-hop subculture has been on the forefront of American culture. The problem being faced with the way hip-hop is being depicted is hip-hop has recently begun promoting violence and drug abuse constantly. Both artists and audiences are directly distinguished by the way hip-hop is perceived. There are growing concerns about how hip-hop could be necessary to the functionality of American culture. Therefore, the argument of how hip-hop is altering American culture may lead to an ethical dilemma.          Drug addiction is a problem faced in America; drugs could be extremely harmful. Carrying the power to drag an individual towards death and deconstruction. The eradication of drugs becomes more and more difficult, especially because substance abuse is consistently promoted in hip-hop.  A study conducted by The Pacific Institute of Research and Evaluation, a non-profit public health organization, found” people who listen to rap and hip-hop music are more likely to have problems with alcohol, drugs, and violence than listeners of other types of music” (Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, 2008). The study focuses on how influential hip-hop is towards the consumption of substance abuse. Susceptibility seems to contribute to artist and audience. Introducing these addiction based substances to large audiences could bring nothing more than harm. According to a survey conducted by Kathleen Odenthal, an online author for a website about the effects hip-hop has on society, found that “out of 3,175 people, eighty percent prefer hip-hop music” (Odenthal, 2016).   Hip-hop is one of the most liked music styles, may have a higher chance of being a negative influence for audiences. Not only is hip-hop promoting drug abuse, but violence as well.            From an artist perspective, hip-hop tends to be used for self-expression. Krista Thompson, a college professor in the Department of Art History, asserts that “such explorations of the intersections between hip-hop’s musical production and studio practice have been instinctive in that they suggest how hip-hop culture and popular expressions” (Thompson, 2009). Thompson has been studying hip-hop as art history at Duke University. For an artist to possibly be successful, the audience must oblige to the message. Moreover, rappers have recently begun to incorporate excessive amounts of violent language and actions to their music. Eliana Tropeano, a researcher studying how music may cause a viewer to be more violent, remarks “it was found that watching the violent music video containing violent lyrics, aggressive behavior, and degrading behaviour towards women…the conclusion was that watching violent music videos does negatively affect behavior” (Tropeano, 2006). Rap is part of hip-hop subculture, and it comes from a form of expressive language. This expressive language is shared, with an audience. Every artist with an audience carries the power to inspire the audience. This study shows how the hip-hop in correlation with violence is still relevant ten years later.  Hip-hop, as a whole, has been labeled as deviant because of the lack of morality.  Audiences are constantly exposed to hip-hop culture by artists, especially through lyrics and music video context. As claimed by Becky Blanchard, a researcher on poverty and prejudice through media and race at Stanford University, “if rap music appears to be excessively violent when compared to country-western or popular rock, it is because rap stems from a culture that has been seeped in the fight against political, social, and economic oppression” (Blanchard, 2000). Blanchard’s research came from a study she conducted, on the social significance of hip-hop culture. There is partial reasoning, on the violence and drug abuse encouraged in Hip-Hop. Hip-hop stems from violent roots, but violence is used as a way for the artist to be heard.                     From an audience perspective, hip-hop could be crucial towards moral decisions.  Hip-hop has become an intricate part of American culture, such music can alter the minds of the listeners. Currently, hip-hop instills improper beliefs that negatively influence American people. As reported by Susan Weber, a music therapist at MMB Music Inc., “if someone is rapping over and over again about killing cops, someone is more likely to kill cops because people are susceptible to suggestions” (Haynes, 2006). There is a tendency for violent gestures such as killing to be shown in rap. The advertisement of killing makes the audience more prone to thinking of killing. Hip-hop has become an ingrained aspect of American culture. The violence shown in rapping (a component of hip-hop) allow for audiences to be exposed to more aggressive ideas.  Nelson George, the author of Hip Hop America, mentions “now we know that rap music, and hip-hop style as a whole, has utterly broken through from its ghetto roots to assert a lasting influence on American clothing, magazine publishing, television, language, sexuality, and social policy…” (George, 1998). Hip Hop America is centered around hip-hop in America and the effects hip-hop places on American culture. Artist praising negativity allow for audiences to be severely impacted by hip-hop subculture. Hip-hop coming from a violent environment uses violence to express. An artist having an audience opens up the possibility of artists giving the wrong impression of the perception of right or wrong. The ethical corruption hip-hop can create, increases by the violence incorporated in the subculture.          Hip-hop is detrimentally affecting American culture and morals. However, some may argue hip-hop has managed to represent American culture. As found by Marcyliena Morgan, a researcher at Hip-Hop Archive and Research Institute,”as it has moved around the globe, hip-hop language and discourse style has become a model of how to simultaneously represent American culture and society while celebrating and challenging traditions, the nation-state, and identities” (Morgan,2016). Hip-hop is claimed to be a representation of hip-hop culture. This seems to be a popular belief but is not truly followed. Hip-hop seems to be one of the most harm causing sub-cultures (Tropeano, 2006). Promoting drug abuse and violence, inflicting brutal mindsets on an audience from an artist.              Ultimately, hip-hop is relevant because it has become part of American culture. It has become everlasting, and an ethically impactful movement. Between artists and audiences, there are major connections. The audiences offer reactions, to what artists create. There are certain outcomes caused by hip-hop, drug abuse, and violence. Not only are drug abuse and violence enhanced, but they can also be in correlation.