All vote for them. The second phase happens

All around the world there are many different ways through which countries decide their leader, in America for instance we use a unique system called the Electoral College. Every  person in the U.S. who is 18 years old and above can vote in the presidential elections, this is called the popular vote. A person while voting may think his and every other person’s vote would determine the next president, but this isn’t entirely true. What really happens is that the system called the Electoral College takes place which then decides the next president. It consists of 538 electors who cast votes to determine the next president and vice president, which is known as the electoral vote. When people vote, their votes aren’t really gathered up and counted to see who won a certain state but what happens is that these votes determine which candidates would receive the electors of the state. Different states have different number of electors which depend on the number of the state’s Senators and the House Representatives which in turn depends on the population as the number of the House Representatives depends on the number of people in a state. Most of the time the electors vote for the person who won the popular vote either because of the law of the state or because of the pledge they took but sometimes this does not happen and the elector who doesn’t vote according to his pledge is considered a faithless elector. (“What is the Electoral College” , n.d) The electors are mainly chosen in two phases. In the first phase the political parties in each state either nominate their electors at their state party convention or they vote for them. The second phase happens on Election Day. When voters vote for their choice of candidate, they in reality vote for the electors that the candidate had nominated. The nominated electors who win are then appointed as the state’s electors. Most states have a winner take all system, in which as the name applies the candidates takes home all the electoral votes. Maine and Nebraska however use a different method. Both states use the Congressional District Method which basically divides the state into different districts and the winner of each district gets one electoral vote and the winner of the statewide vote gets the remaining two electoral vote. On December, the candidates take their electors and get together after which the electors vote for the next president and vice president. Out of the 538 votes, a candidate is required to have a majority of 270 electoral votes to win the presidential elections.(“How does the Electoral College work”, n.d)Although this seems really reliable it also has major problems. One of them is that it is not certain that the candidate that wins the popular vote also wins the electoral vote which has been shown multiple times in history and which most recently happened in the 2016 election. In the election Hillary Clinton face Donald Trump and managed to win the popular vote by almost a two percent margin but at the end Trump was announced the new president as he won the electoral vote by more than a 14 percent margin (56.88% to 42.38). A similar situation occurred in the 2000 election which was between Bush and Gore. Gore had obtained a popular vote victory of 543,895 but despite of this Bush won the presidential election through the his electoral votes by 271 to 266. This was also shown in the 1888 election in which Grover Cleveland won the popular vote by a margin of 0.8% but he still lost the presidential elections as Benjamin Harrison got the majority of electoral votes. (“Controversial Elections”, n.d). The other problems with this system is that it decreases the campaigning done by candidates. Candidates tend to go to the state where they think they have a chance of winning. They don’t even reach out to the states where they know they would certainly either win or lose the electoral vote because of which such states do not have a whole lot of campaigning in comparison to other swing states. It also creates a 269 to 269 tie possibility. Although this has never happened in the past chances for such an outcome have highly increased in recent elections. It may be true that there is also a chance of having a tie in the popular vote but the chances are a lot less than that of the Electoral vote as the population voting does not really have a certain amount. Another downfall is that it may be impossible for a third party candidate to win in today’s time but because of the Electoral college a third party candidate could take away some of the electoral votes which would cause an effect on the two main parties as the third party candidate would take away some of the votes from either the Republican side or the Democratic side. This was shown in the 1968 election in which George Wallace, a third party candidate took away 46 electoral votes having a huge impact on the elections. This was an astonishing event as a third party candidate had never won such a number of electoral votes. (“United States presidential election 1968” , 11/11/2017) Many past attempts have failed to either abolish or reform the Electoral College. In 1969 Richard Nixon tried to abolish the electoral college with the support of his former rival Hubert Humphrey. The reason they united was that in the past election Wallace a third party candidate had gained 46 electoral votes. Although there had been past attempts to abolish the electoral college, Wallace winning these votes increased the interest of people. This idea did come to vote in the House and was passed by a great number in 1969 but soon died as a group of senators from the south thought that the states with large populations will dominate the elections ( “In 1969, Democrats and Republicans united to get rid of the Electoral College. Here is what happened”, DEC, 19, 2016 ). In 1950 there was a plan to replace the electoral college with a