ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Special thanks also to my group mates,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This
writing about Christianity would not have been possible without the support of
many peoples. I want to express my gratitude to my class teacher, Madam Alina
Shuhaida binti Mohammad Ramly who was abundantly helpful and offered invaluable
assistance, support and guidance. Special thanks also to my group mates,
Nusaibah, Nurain Najihah and Nurul syafiqah for helping me to write about Christianity.
I really grateful that I managed to complete this assignment within the time
given by Madam Alina Shuhaida. My thanks and appreciation also go to the people
who are directly or indirectly helped me out in developing the assignment.

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INTRODUCTION

The
function of religion is to explain the unexplained, thereby giving humanity a
sense of comfort in a world of chaos. Food, as it sustains life, is an
essential part of religious symbols, rituals and customs, daily life deeds
aimed at establishing an orderly relationship with the spiritual or supernatural
realms. Many of the characteristics that shape dietary habits come from
religious laws. Throughout the world, many people tend to eat or avoid certain
foods according to their religious beliefs. Differences in diet associated with
religion should be considered when designing a balanced diet.

 

CHRISTIANITY

Christianity
is a religion based on the teachings and miracles of Jesus. Jesus was anointed
from God the Father who came into the world, fulfilled the Old Testament laws
and prophecies, died on the cross, and rose from the dead physically.
Christianity teaches that there is only one God in all existence, that God made
the universe, the Earth, and created Adam and Eve. In the world, more people
follow Christianity than any other religion. The dominant three branches of Christianity
are Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox Christians and Protestantism. The
conviction of Christian faith is found in the Apostles and the Creed of Nicene.
This belief explains that people are saved through the grace of God, Jesus’
life and death, and his resurrection as Christ.

For
most Christian sacraments mark the main stage of worship and retain individual
worshipers. The observed sacraments, and their manner of observation, differ
among Christian groups. The seventh Roman Catholic sacrament, for example,
baptism (entering the church of Christ), confirmation, (the soul receiving the
Holy Spirit), the Eucharist (taking part in the sacred presence by sharing
bread and wine), marriage (the unity of a man and a woman through love)
unification (healing of mind, spirit and body), peace (rejection and
confession) and the ordination of scholars.

 

           

ROMAN
CATHOLICISM

The
largest number of people who follow Christian religion in the United States which
is Roman Catholics. The number of Roman Catholics in the world (almost 1.1
billion) is higher than most other religious traditions. There are more Roman
Catholics than all the combined Christians and more Roman Catholics than all
Buddhists or Hindus. Although there are more Muslims than Roman Catholics, the
number of Roman Catholics is greater than the Sh?’ite and Sunni Islam
traditions.

 

ROMAN
CATHOLICS FEAST DAYS

The
Roman Catholic Day is a day set aside to remember people and important events
through the journey of Faith from the birth of Mary all day through this day
honoring the saints. In addition to Christmas (the birth of Christ) and Easter
(Christ’s resurrection after the crucifixion), Americans in the United States
also celebrate New Year’s Day, Announcements (March 25), Palm Sunday (Sunday
before Easter) (forty days after Easter), Sunday Pentecost (fifty days after
Easter), Assumption (15 August), All Saint’s Day (1 November), and Immaculate
Conception (8th December).

 

 

ROMAN
CATHOLICS FAST DAY

The
Catholic Church historically observes the discipline of fasting and abstinence
at various times each year. For Catholics, fasting is a reduction in food
intake, while abstinence refers to the deferment of meat (or other types of
food). The Catholic Church teaches that all people are required by God to
redeem their sins, and the redemptive acts are personal and physical. The purpose
of fasting is spiritual, self-discipline, imitation of Christ, and redemption.

For
Roman Catholics, fasting only confirms one full meal per day in the afternoon. You
can still consumed food intake in the morning or evening. The abstinence law
requires a Catholic aged 14 years to refrain from eating meat on Friday to
respect the Passion of Jesus on Good Friday. Meat is considered as meat and
organs of mammals and poultry. Also prohibited is the soup or gravies they
make. Salt and fish species, amphibians, reptiles and fish shells are
permitted, and animal products such as margarine and gelatin that have no meat
taste.

The
fasting law requires Catholics from the 18th Anniversary (Canon 97) to the 59th
Anniversary, to reduce the amount of food consumed from the usual. The church
defines this as one serving a day, and two small meals that if added together
will not exceed the main meal in quantity. Such a fasting must be at Ash Wednesday
and Good Friday. Fasting can be break by eating between food and drink that can
be considered as food (milk shake, but not milk). Alcoholic beverages do not
break the fast, but they seem to be in conflict with the spirit of redemption.

In
addition to those who are out of age, those who are not minded, sick, weak,
pregnant or breastfeeding women according to the need for meat or food, manual
labor according to their needs, are people who are excused from fasting or
abstinence.

 

 

 

 

 

EASTERN
ORTHODOX CHRISTIANITY

The
Eastern Orthodox Church is like the old Catholic Roman Catholic Branch, even
though are unusual in the United States. The Orthodox Church consists of fourteen
churches, five of them  which are Constantinople.
Alexandria (Egyptian Coptic Church), Antioch, Jerusalem and Cyprus.

FEAST
DAYS IN EASTERN ORTHODOX CHRISTIANITY

Eastern
Orthodox festivals are Christmas, Theophany, Annunciation, Easter (First Sunday
after the full moon after March 21), Ascension (40 days after Easter),
Transfiguration and the Birth of Theotocos of the Holy. Easter is the most
important holiday in Eastern Orthodox religion and is celebrated on the first
Sunday after the full moon after March 21, but not the Jewish Passover.

 

FAST
DAYS IN THE EASTERN ORTHODOX

Some
strict rules for fasting are found in the Eastern Orthodox Church. During the
Lenten season, there are days when members are encouraged to restrict their
food strictly or avoid eating altogether. Lent is the forty days before Easter.
On the third Sunday before Lent (Meat Fare Sunday), all the meat inside the
house is eaten. On Sundays before Lent (Cheese Fare Sunday), all cheese, eggs
and butter in the house are eaten. The next day, Net Monday, Lenten quickly started.

During
the second week of Lent, full meals are only allowed on Wednesdays and Fridays.
However, many members do not follow the rule. On weekdays is a quarantine of
meat, eggs, dairy, fish, wine and oil which are limited. This also applies to
any food products that contain these items. A week before Leprosy, all animal
products, including meat, are cannot be eaten. Good Friday is a day for a
complete fasting where a member is encouraged not to eat anything.

Those
who receive Holy Communion on Sunday refrain from food and drink before the
service. Fasting is considered a chance to prove that the soul can rule the
body. On a quick day, no meat or animal products (milk, eggs, butter and
cheese) are eaten. Fish is also avoided, but shellfish are usually allowed. The
older Orthodox followers of Greece or the more obedient did not use olive oil
in quick days, but would eat olives.

PROTESTANTISM

The
16th-century religious movement known as the Reformation established by the Protestant
churches by questioning the practices of the Roman Catholic Church and
ultimately separating itself from its teachings. The man who are primarily
responsible for the Reformation was Martin Luther, a German Augustinian monk
who taught theology. He started the movement in 1517, when he patted a document
containing 95 protests against some Catholic practice at the castle’s door at
Wittenberg. He then expanded his position. Ten years later, some countries and
Germany organized the Protestant Lutheran Church based on the teachings of
Martin Luther.

The
most important food ordinance in Protestant churches is the Eucharist, also
called communion, or the Lord’s Supper. However, apart from the liquid and
bread as the piece offered, there is little consistency in the celebration of
this procedure. It may indicate a meeting with the presence of a living God,
remembering the Passover Module that Jesus attended, the continuity of
tradition through society, or the individual spiritual experience. Although
wine is traditional, many churches change to grape juice during the Prohibition
and continue this generous practice. Some churches offer wine / juices in a
single shared cup, while others provide small and separate cups.

Many
liturgical churches, such as the Lutheran church, offer a wafer similar to
Catholic practice. Others like Methodist, often use bread pellets. There are
experts in baking for bread and many denominations only use cut white bread.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FASTING
PRACTICES IN PROTESTANT CHURCHES

Among
many Protestant churches, there are various suggestions on fasting during
Leprosy. This is a result of the Reformation where leaders such as Martin
Luther and John Calvin want new believers to focus on salvation by the grace of
God rather than traditional spiritual disciplines.

The
Gathering of the Lord views fasting as a form of self-control and is an
important practice, though it is not obligatory. The members can voluntarily
and privately decide to practice them with the understanding that it is not
done to calm the favor of God.

·        
The Baptist
Church has not set a day of fasting, either. This practice
is a personal decision when a member wants to strengthen his relationship with
God.

 

·        
The Episcopal
Church is one of the few that specifically urges fasting
during Leprosy. In particular, experts are asked to fast, pray, and give alms
to Ash Wednesday and Good Friday.

 

·        
The Lutheran
Church delivers fasting in Augsburg Recognition. He says,
“We do not condemn the fasting itself, but the tradition that sets certain
days and certain flesh, with the danger of conscience, as if these were the
necessary services.” Therefore, although it is not required in a
particular fashion or during Quarantine, the church has no problem with the
members fast with the right intentions.

 

·        
The Methodist
Church also sees fasting as the personal concern of its
members and has no regulation about it. However, the church encourages members
to avoid indulgences such as favorite foods, hobbies, and entertainment such as
watching TV during Leprosy.

 

·        
The Presbyterian
Church also takes a voluntary approach. It is seen as a
practice that can bring members closer to God, rely on Him for help, and help
them against oppression.

SEVENTH
DAY ADVENTISTS

Seventh-day
Adventist Church recognizes the autonomy of every individual and the power of
his choice given by God. Instead of controlling the behavioral standards,
Adventists call upon each other to live as a positive example of God’s love and
care. Some of these examples are by maintaining health and trusting that God
calling us to take care of our bodies, treating them with respect for divine
creation worthy. The size and advantages, even if something good, can hurt our
health.

The
practice of Adventism is very different from the church to the church. Some are
more conservative, others are more liberal. Some examples are:

·        
Homosexuality:
Similar to all conservative Christian denominations, SDA does not allow
homosexual ordination. Loving, having the same sex partner are cannot be
married or have their recognized or blessed from other people.

 

·        
Sabbath:
Perhaps the most obvious practice that distinguishes them from most other
Christian churches is that they follow observing Saturday as their weekly
Sabbath (from Friday to sunset). Their religious education classes are called the
Sabbath School, not Sunday school. Some followers greet “Happy
Sabbath” when they meet.

 

·        
Education:
Higher education is highly respected in the church. The rate of college
graduates among Seventh-Day Adventist membership is about twice the US national
average.

Adventists
believe the welfare key lies in a balanced and simple life. Nature creates a
lot of good things that lead to lively health. Pure water, fresh air and
sunlight, when properly used, can promote a clean and healthy life. Exercise
and avoid harmful substances such as tobacco, alcohol and mind-changing
material lead to clear thinking and wise choices. A balanced vegetarian diet
that avoids the use of meat coupled with intake of legumes, cereals, nuts,
fruits and vegetables, along with the source of vitamin B12, will promote
healthy health.

 

Adventists
believe that illness is a result of a violation of health law. Vegetarian is
generally practiced because the Bible states that the diet in Eden does not
include meat. Most Adventists are lacto-ovo-vegetarians (dairy products and
eggs, but not meat). Some take the meat, but they avoid pork and mussels. Mrs.
White encourages the use of nuts and nuts instead of meat, replacing vegetable
oils for animal fat, and using whole grains in bread.

Like
Mormons, Adventists do not drink tea, coffee, or alcohol and do not use tobacco
products. Water is considered the best liquid that should be eaten only before
and after eating, not during meals. Food that are highly seasoned and contained
hot spices such as mustard, chilli powder and black pepper are avoided. Eating
between meals is not recommended for food to be properly digested.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ISSUES
ABOUT FOOD ALLERGIES VS FEASTING AND FELLOWSHIP IN THE CHURCH

Eating
can be a source of fellowship, but in a fallen and allergic world, it can also
challenge. For most people, eating is a wonderful opportunity for Christian
fellowship. But for people with allergies, it can be a source of division and
isolation. The festivals of the Church that serve as a symbol of unity and
Christian identity can be complicated in the fallen world. The common
celebration is good, but it can also be complicated. If we want to love our
brothers in Christ well, then it is time to think deeply about food
sensitivities and their relationship with Christian hospitality and
self-sacrifice.

Food
allergies cases are increasing. We know friends and family members who have
food allergies. Maybe we have allergies by ourselves. Given the reach of social
media, we also hear the stories of children and teens who have experienced
anaphylactic shock after a bite of Rich Krispies Treat. The cause of food
allergies is unclear but the effect can be irritating such as skin reactions,
eczema, rashes, itching and watery eyes, and congestion. For others they are
life threatening because of breathing difficulties, obstruction of respiratory
tract or swollen tongue, dropping blood pressure, chest pain, loss of
consciousness and sometimes death.

For
those with food allergies, the shared schedule can be a minefield. Since risk
allergies arise to the church, many churches begin to set up food policies as
they are in school. Some will label meals that are allergen-free or set them on
a table set to reduce pollution, while others offer gluten-free bread for
communion. As allergic awareness grows, so does the church’s ability to bear
the burden of those who endanger their health every time they gather to eat as
a congregation.

Church
members are also beginning to bear their burdens by recognizing the differences
between the risk of allergy and the preference of food present in various
bodies. If two decades ago have seen an increase in food allergies, they also
see growing interest in food sources, with many consumers increasingly becoming
aware of what they take into their bodies and doing the food just clean,
organic, or local food.

 

 

CONCLUSION

The
dominant three branches of Christianity are Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox
Christians and Protestantism. Food rules differ from one denomination or
another Christian group, with some groups not observing any restrictions. Some
days of fasting are observed by Catholic and Orthodox Christians on certain
days such as Good Friday or during Leprosy. In conclusion, the choice of food
is caused by different causes and religions. Understanding the role of food in
cultural and religious practices is an important part of showing respect and
response to others from different religions.