ACID carbon dioxide or sulphur dioxide.In the presence

 

ACID RAIN

Acid rain is the rain or other precipitation with
a high concentration of acids produced by sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and
other such gases that result from the combustion of fossil fuels: it has a destructive effect on plant and aquatic life, buildings, etc.

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CAUSES OF ACID RAIN-

Acid rain is mainly caused due to the presence
of sulphuric acid and  nitric acid in the
atmosphere.Sulphuric acid is formed due to the burning of fossil fuels whereas
nitric acid is formed due the exhaustion of pollutants from our vehicles.

It
is essential to know that rain itself initially is acidic.When it falls on the
surface of the earth it dissolves carbon dioxide(CO2) from the atmosphere into
a carbonic acid(H2CO3) a weak acid giving natural rain a ph of 6.And when we
burn fossil fuels that much of stronger acids get into our rain giving the rain
a ph value as low as 3 forming acid rain.And when ph changes from  6 to 3 the acidity increases by 1000 times
i.e. the rain gets a 1000 times more acidic than  before.

HOW  SULPHURIC ACID GETS INTO THE RAIN-

When
the coal  is burnt the suplhur and carbon
atoms join with oxygen in air and are released into the air as carbon dioxide
or sulphur dioxide.In the presence of sunlight a photochemical reaction will
take place where sulphur dioxide dissolves with more oxygen and forms sulphur
trioxide which in turn dissolves in the rain water forming sulphuric acid.

HOW  NITRIC ACID GETS INTO THE RAIN-

In
the high temperature conditions in the cylinders of our motor vehicles a small
amount of nitrogen and oxygen in the air can react.Exhaust gases from vehicles
contain small but significant amount of nitrogen oxides.Once the oxides of
nitrogen are in the air they react with more oxygen just as in the case of
sulphur dioxide and dissolve in the rain water and form  nitric acid.

If
the rain falls on limestone soils which are alkaline the acidity may be
neutralized however if the rain lands on neutral and acid soils or vegetation
then it can cause damage.

WHY
IS ACID RAIN HARMFUL-

Acid  rain is harmful as living organisms are not
able to grow well in acidic conditions.This is also because certain enzymes are
not able to grow properly in acidic conditions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

OZONE LAYER

Ozone
is a gas made up of 3 oxygen atoms which is 3-5 mm thick.This thinly spread out
gas has been protecting earths surface for past many million years from uv
rays.

DEPLETION
OF OZONE LAYER-

This
layer formed by ozone is now getting depleted due to some man made chemicals
mainly chloro fluoro carbons and nitrogen oxides.CFCs are a group of chemically
similar gases used in refrigirators, air conditioners ,aerosols,solvents
etc.Nitrogen oxides are by products of fuel burning such as from aircraft
exhausts.

 

v  WHAT  IS OZONE HOLE-

Ozone hole is not exactly a hole instead it is an
area where in the total ozone amount is less than 220 dops and units.The ozone
hole has steadly grown in size upto 27 million sq km.

 

v  CAN
WE STOP THE DEPLETION OF OZONE LAYER-

Yes the depletion can easily be stopped by taking
certain precautions that is by reducing the use of  certain machines which produce cfcs and nitrogen
oxides such as refrigirators,air conditioners,motorvehicles.It can even be
avoided by not using acs and refrigirators containing cfcs.