According used in the study because according to

According to the authors
of this study, the other devices “failed to accurately estimate
contemporaneously collected rectal temperatures” (Allegaert et al, 2013). The
authors did not recommend the devices used in the study because according to
them, they did not perform well enough to warrant a recommendation. The article
Tympanic, Infrared Skin, and Temporal
Artery Scan Thermometers Compared with Rectal Measurement in Children: A Real-Life
Assessment is a well written article that shows that the results study was
non-biased. The information of study design and sample that the authors
included was easy to read and supported their study with statistical evidence
that was well defined and concise. The authors discussed the evidence and
implications very clearly and objectively. Rectal thermometry is still the most
accurate and reliable way to measure temperature in children, and according to
the article, until further studies are done or a better device becomes
available, the rectal thermometer will continue to be the preferred way to
measure temperature in children. Nurses should continue to use rectal thermometer
to monitor temperature reading in children. The findings from this research cannot
be generalized to other population because according to Craig and his colleagues,
the rectal thermometer should only be used in newborn and young children (Craig
et al, 2002)

Summary/Conclusions/Implications, and
Recommendations

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The authors used a total
of 294 children from different race and sexes with a median age of 3.2 years
(range =0.02-17 years) and the authors used Likert scale or VAS scores where
they reported them as median or range and they used temperature readings as well
(Allegaert et al, 2013). The authors compared the temperature by using
different measurement tools. With the rectal temperature readings being the
reference value, different temperature readings were compared to it and graphed
according to the Bland-Altman method (sensitivity and specificity tests). The
authors used positive predictive values, negative predictive values,
specificity, and sensitivity to detect a raise in body temperature (37.8°C) and
fever (38°C) and calculated them based on the same rectal reference
measurement. MedCalc was used to analyze the statistics and P values ?0.05 were considered noteworthy.
The research was done in an objective manner and the data reflected that. The
researchers did the study to look at the accuracy of infrared skin scan,
tympanic and temporal artery scan thermometer when compared with the rectal measurement
to see if it will reflect the core temperature. The findings showed that even
though the rectal thermometer was invasive, it outscored the other noninvasive
methods. It also showed that the noninvasive devices underestimate higher
temperatures and overestimate lower temperatures when compared with the measurement
taken rectally.

Data Analysis

The authors briefly
discussed the data collection methods that they used. For rectal temperature,
the authors used Filac 3000. For the tympanic temperature, the authors used
AccuSystem Genius2 Tympanic Infrared Ear Thermometer. For the temporal artery
scan, the authors used Exergen, and for the Infrared Skin Scan, the authors
used ThermoFlash Contactless Medical Electronic Thermometer, where body
temperature measurements were randomly performed and the readings were
collected at once (Allegaert et al, 2013). The authors observed and compared the
rectal temperature readings and described them as median and range. The comfort
of the child was assessed by nurses who used Likert scales and by the parents
as well and the nurses also use a visual analog scale to assess the ease of
use. The authors conducted their study in a pediatric emergency department
where the setting is appropriate because thermometry is frequently used in
children at such setting. The measurements were collected randomly in every
single patient. The nurses were trained before the study on the correct way to
use the different devices and the measurements were done according to the
product-specific instruction.

Methodology

The hypothesis of this
research is a nondirectional hypothesis because even though the researchers
stated that a relationship between the variables, they did not state the
direction of the relationship (Schmidt & Brown, 2015).  The hypothesis of the research just stated “We
specifically sought to determine the agreement between the measurements taken
by the various devices and the standard rectal thermometry (Allegaert et al,
2013).

Variables/Hypotheses

Conceptual framework is
the most identifiable framework in this study. The researchers did not use any
specific theory in the study and the framework that they used was very broad.
The researchers based their study on their own experience, previous research
studies.  The research was drawn solely
on nursing theory.

Theoretical Framework

The authors of this
article reviewed several articles to help stress the importance of accurate temperature
reading in pediatric population in the emergency room and also the need for the
study. The authors used sources such as In
a systematic review, infrared ear thermometry for fever diagnosis in children
finds poor sensitivity (Dodd et al, 2006), Accuracy of non-contact infrared thermometry versus rectal thermometry
in young children evaluated in the emergency department for fever (Fortuna,
2010), Infrared ear thermometry compared
with rectal thermometry in children: a systematic review (Craig et al,
2002), and Antipyretic efficacy and
tolerability of a single intravenous dose of the acetaminophen prodrug
propacetamol in children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
(Walson et al, 2006) just to mention a few. All the sources that the authors
used pertained to the topic being discussed, the references were all current,
and had correct citations for all the references used.

Review of the Literature

There was no specific
problem from the research that I could pinpoint but the purpose of the research
is to compare the effectiveness of infrared skin scan, tympanic scan, temporal
artery scan, and rectal thermometer. As a mother of three children and an aunt
to twelve nieces and nephews, I am aware of how painful and uncomfortable
rectal temperature can be for children, and even though it is very accurate I see
that as a problem that the research article did not address.

Research Problem/Purpose

            Different types of thermometers were used in this study.
The tympanic thermometer is a handheld device that is used to measure the
temperature of the tympanic membrane. It works by detecting infrared radiation from
the tissue. The infrared skin scan is a thermometer that infers temperature
from a portion of the thermal radiation that is emitted by the object being
measured (Dodd et al, 2006). A temporal artery thermometer is “a non-oral
thermometer that can take the body temperature. It works by simply sliding the
device across the forehead so it can measure the temperature of the blood
flowing through the large temporal artery” (Myny et al, 2005). A rectal
thermometer is a thermometer that is used to take a temperature in the rectum
through the anus. The results from the study showed that with the different
kinds of thermometer used, the rectal thermometer was more accurate (Batra
& Goval, 2013).

This
is a review paper of the article entitled Tympanic,
Infrared Skin, and Temporal Artery Scan Thermometers Compared with Rectal
Measurement in Children: A Real-Life Assessment. The above-mentioned
article describes a study that was performed to decide the precision of
infrared skin scan, tympanic scan, temporal artery scan, and rectal
thermometer. According to Batra & Goval (2013), there were differences in
body temperature readings when rectal measurements were compared to temporal
artery scan measurement, tympanic scan, and infrared skin scan in 100 children.

Quantitative
Critique Article

 

 

 

 

Infrared skin scan,
rectal thermometer, tympanic scan, temporal artery scan  

Key Words

 

 

This is critique paper on
the article entitled Tympanic, Infrared Skin, and Temporal Artery Scan Thermometers Compared
with Rectal Measurement in Children: A Real-Life Assessment. Research
and studies have shown that the use of infrared thermometer is quick. Painless,
and non-invasive. For the accurate measurement of temperature in pediatrics in emergency
department, research and studies have found rectal thermometer to be more accurate
than infrared skin scan, tympanic scan, and temporal artery scan. Research have
found that infrared skin scan, tympanic skin scan and temporal artery scan can
be up in temperature readings up four degrees lower or higher than rectal
thermometer reading. This is a paper that will critique the various different
aspect of the research study that will include the research problem or purpose,
a review of the literature, the theoretical framework of the research, the
variables or hypotheses, the methodology of the research, data analysis, and a conclusion
and recommendation.   

 

Abstract