According or quality and beneficial of production, also

According to research, Nigeria was rule by military government,
high centralized and non-transparency operation.  In 1958, oil resources were discovered in Nigeria,
sets of civil war, government corrupt activities and serious theft case happened
along the years. Multi-national corporation take the risk to ‘unlock’ oil
production for higher-return, even though Nigeria is a difficult economic and
political environment compare to other under-developed countries.

The western oil companies
such as Shell Group and Chevron has a set of principles which applies to how
their business processes describe the behaviour and values of every employee,
produce overall positive impact on society (business principles letter, health,
safety and environment letter, letter of representation). The objectives and core
values of Shell companies are honesty, integrity and respect for people. Stakeholders
have expected the behaviour and responsibilities of business that go beyond the
employee’s careers journey or quality and beneficial of production, also to
engage responsibly and profitably in the oil, gas, chemicals and contribute to
the search and technology development of sources of energy in Nigeria.

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They claimed that they
performed their commercial activities honestly, professionally, competently and
in accordance with local legislations to maintain a long-term position. These
commercial activities, generating wealth not only for the shareholders, but
also with stakeholders, like employees, suppliers, debtors, and the community
from which the business draws its resources. For instance, a person, or group
that has a direct or indirect interest in the organization should be counted as
stakeholders because the actions, goals and policies of the organization may
affect or involve them.

It is important to note
an important distinction between two different CSR obligations which oil MNCs
are expected to comply with. The first is the positive obligation or
“affirmative duty”, and the second is the duty to care for the
environment or “negative injunction duty”. The affirmative duties are
those obligations which corporations perform in aid of host communities,
including the building of roads, hospitals, schools, initiating and executing
electrification projects, the commissioning of water boreholes, etc

These western corporations
began by making philanthropic gestures – cash payments, award of scholarships,
construction of classroom blocks, roads, hospitals and the supply of
agricultural equipment. Since then, these corporations have
adopted various approaches towards CSR. These include community assistance and
development projects. The dominant partnership approaches include
government-business partnerships, business-NGO partnerships and
corporate-community partnerships facilitated by NGOs.

The most important
contribution that companies can make to the social and material progress of the
countries in which they operate is in performing their basic activities as
effectively as possible. In addition, Shell companies take a constructive
interest in societal matters which may not be directly related to the business.
Opportunities for involvement – for example through community, educational or
donations programmes – will vary depending upon the size of the company
concerned, the nature of the local society, and the scope for useful private

the other hand, negative injunction duties involve preventing and rectifying
social injuries that may arise in the process of realizing business objectives
– including oil spills, water and air pollutions, gas flaring, acid rains,
forest fires, etc. Meeting these negative injunction duties are fundamental
aspects of CSR, because they make up the “moral minimum” which every
corporation is expected to observe.