AbstractThis paper examines how the prominent architects dealt

AbstractThis paper examines how the prominent architects dealt with measures and topography during their architectural career. The paper examines each of the three architects’ usage of topography and measures as part of their career processes. Through various literal sources, the paper founds that KoolÁlvaro Siza, Rem Koolhaas, and Filippo Brunelleschi used different approaches in their architectural activities but have some identical aspects or traits. Siza was more influenced by cultural and environmental aspects while Koolhaas was much influenced by contemporary cities. Brunelleschi was influenced by Biblical stories. Both Siza and Koolhaas used measures to maximize environmental space for easy movement or easy congestion while Brunelleschi used linear geometry to build a large building to cover the available space.  Therefore, this study illustrates how the identified architects used measures and topography to design the famous buildings across the world.              How do Koolhaas & Siza deal with Measure and Topography?IntroductionFor centuries, architecture have been found to be among the major career that have been experiencing constant improvements regarding their design such as space, creation, beauty, inhabitation, topography, representation, meaning, modernity, and technology. Such design attributes always define of influence the approaches used by the architects. Specifically, topography and measure have an upper hand that influences the decision-making during the architectural design process. Topography refers to while measure is Various architects use their strategic approaches in making designs as much unique as possible based on the time and the taste of the surrounding societies in respect to the purpose of the building or the developed structures. The architect’s designing decision has a great impact on the society regarding public safety, thus requires one to undergo advanced training and internship for practical skills to consider the underlying factors such as topography. Some talented architects who have been popularly known across the world used strategic design approaches to accomplish their design process. As such, this research paper aims at illustrating the way famous architects dealt with topography and measure during their popular work. Specifically, this study explores the ways Álvaro Siza, Rem Koolhaas, and Filippo Brunelleschi considered measure and topography in their popular work. The paper discusses each of the selected architect’s biographies, their use of measures and topography, and ends with a concluding summary of the findings.?Siza Vieira is known for his popular architectural work that includes designing school buildings, private houses, public pool complexes and swimming pools for children and adults (Jodidio, 1999). On his part, Rem Koolhaas was a great architectural urbanists, author, and thinker in the modern generation. Koolhaas’ major landmarks included Netherlands Embassy Berlin, headquarters of China Central Television, De Rotterdam, and Seattle Central Library. Filippo Brunelleschi was a key figure in the ancient architecture which was known to be the pioneer of modern architectural engineering, sole construction supervisor, and a planner (Brunelleschi, 1998). He was among the founding fathers of Renaissance architecture known as the developer of linear perspective during the design of the art and building dome at the popular Florence Cathedral. Architectural MeasuresFilippo Brunelleschi was the earliest architect who invented the use of measures in architecture, especially when he formulated the linear perspectives. Due to theinnovativeness during the ancient era, Brunelleschi usedmeasures to have better structural designs, which was contributed by his mastery of mathematics. He formulated linear perspectives that helped him to depict reality into pictorial space that was used until 19th Century. Brunelleschi relied heavily on the geometry and mirrors to create pictorial depictions of the paintings. During his experiment when formulating linear perspectives of measurements, Brunelleschi painted two different panels, one was titled as Palazzo Vecchio that was seen in an oblique aspect from one corner. The other one was Florentine Baptistery that was viewed from a front aspect of the unfinished cathedral. His first Baptistery panel had a drilled hole that was found to be having centric vanishing points. For instance, when the mirror was moved inside and outside of the Baptistery, the striking similarity was observed between both the reflected and actual view. The experiment worked well and became inspirational to other artists, who adopted the linear geometry as the best measurement tool until 19th Century. Such artistic tool did not only spread in Italy but the whole Western Europe and remains a standard practice of the artists. The measurement tool helped Brunelleschi to design several theatrical items for the use in churches, especially during the performance of religious theatrics that depicted Biblical miraculous stories.The Alvaro Siza Vieira uses hybrid systems measures to design his architectural work through strategic positioning approach. Most of is topographic work were done with reasons of integration and functionality, which includes providing spacious streets or courtyard depending on the intended purposes. A good example is the Tolo House that was designed by Siza and located in a 1000m2 grounds. Siza builds a holiday home with several rooms such as three bedrooms, dining room, living room, social bathroom, a pantry, and a kitchen. The home has a small swimming pool outside while the terrain is sharply inclined into a special configuration. He made great attempts to maintain the pre-existing trees by centering the linear position of the house as a way of preserving the presence of the people in the area. Siza also strived to maintain the immediate continuity of the surroundings to preserve the area’s original features. Such architectural achievements resulted from extensive and complex modular-geometric abstraction to establish the rotation of some modules that are adaptive to the terrain’s natural morphology. The architect was usually considering the distance from regulation walls of the neighbors for natural movements and freedom. Therefore, measures were very critical in Siza’s architectural work.The measure has been a basic and primary principle of the Koolhaas during his architectural design career. He is usually very skeptical in selecting the best design models that fit a given topographic location. As evidenced by some of his work, the appearance of the walls in some buildings such as Dutch House seems to wrap around to illustrate the continuous interior patios and spaces that act as living rooms. Such calculated measures were defined and factored by the topographical shape of the land. The way glasses complemented to each other shows orientation and programs using shadings. It means the author used figurative and literal aspects to bridge into the central ramp through geometrical functions for visual and functional connections between two programmatic systems. Koolhaas also uses hybrid architectural systems that have the potentiality of projecting a professional design based on the given geographic condition. In his lectures, Koolhaas predicted that every architect must be associated with data-drove technology, especially in the current era where clients do not only ask for the designs but ask data of the proposed buildings. Such data is crucial as it helps the building owners in planning to improve and measure the performance of their facilities in a quantitative aspect. Koolhaas usually insists that the architects must ensure that their designs can supply building data that can be supplied to owners for them to improve their assets’ performance. He understands that the current technological era has contributed to the authoritative impact where the relevant house agencies have started inspecting buildings based on the architectural data given. According to Göçer and others (2015), the seriousness of the measures has been evidenced recently when the architects started signing the performance-based contracts where their fee are held until the data of post-occupancy validates.  Architectural TopographyOn topography, Filippo Brunelleschi is well for building the biggest and unique dome of Santa Maria del Fiore located in Italy. Until today, the dome is regarded as the biggest masonry dome that has been ever built. Brunelleschi left no topographic sketch or plan behind, which is part of the architectural secrets that remains an enigma up to date. The size of the Brunelleschi’s work hindered the construction of the traditional structures as the double shell supported it through sturdy pillar, as illustrated in the figure below.Brunelleschi replaced the Gothic style of the topography that was the only known methods used by the architects of the time. No one could believe that erection of such an octagonal floor planning without those traditional architects, but Brunelleschi proved them wrong by building a unique structure with eight pie wedges that were firmly built, as illustrated by King (2013). The strength of the wall plan could not collapse as the masonry was arched towards the building’s apex. Brunelleschi’s topographic approaches are much controversial as other architects did not know what he used as the availability of the timber was limited in Tuscany and could not have sufficed the construction of centering. Brunelleschi constructed the dome in such a way that it supported itself without scaffolding, as his solutions were innovative, ingenious, but expensive (Bartoli et al., 1996). Other controversies are what he used as lifting techniques to maneuver heavy materials, the dome’s octagonal shape, slimness, and lightness of the dome for stability as it has no supportive structures. Alvaro Siza Vieira uses modern topography that is highly connected with nature and the surrounding resources. In other words, the architectural designs of the Siza are much culturally and geographic that is aimed at protecting or making sustainable buildings from natural disasters such as floods. The following figure illustrates the Boa Nova Tea House that was constructed in poor topographic conditions. Most of the Siza’s work has geographic fallacy, like buildings, schools, and private homes were designed in a way that creates a strategic view of natural resources (Caldas et al., 2003). A good example is the Porto School of Architecture that was built with spacious ground comprised of several pavilions such as south orientation that has four pavilions that provide a greater view of River Douro. The school’s topography also comprises of the courtyard that is triangularly shaped to serve social, civic, and urban functions of the school(Bedimo-Rung et al., 2005). Another example of unique topographic work of Siza is the Porto’s Serralves museum that is positioned culturally and geographically in the Portuguese city center. The historic center lies in an 18-hectare park that is landscaped to provide a pictorial setting of the country’s main museum of contemporary art. The facility is designed in a way that allows the array of natural light to enter the rooms as well as corridors through professionally positioned apertures and skylights in the ceilings. ?Similar to the work of Siza, Rem Koolhaas’s architectural work was also based on the context of environmental considerations where the proposed design will be built. A good example of Koolhaas topographic designs is the Dutch House that was constructed in challenging and unique environmental conditions as shown below.  Koolhaas achieved coming up with a working site topography that resulted in an interesting design that responds to the poor environmental conditions (Waldheim, 2006). Despite being located in the highly uneven topography as well as restricted height, the Koolhaas came up with the design that maximized the space for the private residence. Koolhaas designed the plan to be built below and above the ground to accommodate a living room, four bedrooms, a study room, kitchen, and terraces. Koolhaas achieved several accomplishments in his work, as well as inspiring others with his theoretical publications (Koolhaas, 2014). For instance, his “Project on the City” where he gives an example of Nigerian city, Lagos that it functions even without infrastructure. He also examined shopping habits in developed cities such as China, thereby proposing unique design forms of urban areas (Halatsch et al., 2009). In his designs, Koolhaas continues to incorporate his knowledge and observations of the contemporary city when working on his architectural designs. He always has the perceptions of the congestion culture and focuses on how he can address the issue through his architectural work. Koolhaas and Siza have similar sentiments of creating more space for natural movement, as compared to the Brunelleschi who utilized a small space to build a large dome leaving no space for traditional structures.ConclusionIn summary, it is apparent that measure and topography is a basic element for all architects in the development of effective design models. As discussed in this paper, Koolhaas, Siza, and Brunelleschi used to measure and topography in different ways. It is understandable that Brunelleschi was an ancient architect but had great contributions in the sector, especially the formulation of linear geometry that aided in measurements. Koolhaas & Siza are modern architects who use hybrid devices to design topographic designs based on the geographical condition of the land. All the architects have left great landmarks that are recognized globally. On topographies, it is evident that both Koolhaas & Siza create their design based on the cultural and geographic aspect of the proposed building site while depictions of Biblical stories highly influenced Brunelleschi’s work. Even though Koolhaas & Siza had similar instincts in creating spacious designs for natural movements, Brunelleschi had no environmental considerations. However, Koolhaas & Siza differs in the fact that Koolhaas’s work is more central to the contemporary cities while Siza was a modernist. Therefore, all the architects in this paper used measures and topography in various ways to achieve the ultimate goal of the best design model.