ABSTRACT. profitability of fruits trade in Yankaba


are very essential in human diet because of their great nutritional value as
sources of vitamins and minerals. Therefore, they have generated increased
marketing. However, in the developing world, per capita consumption of fruits,
together with fruits, is only 100 g compared with 220 g in the developed
countries (Idah, Ajisegiri and Yisa, 2007). The supply of basic food stuffs at
prices within the reach of the average consumer is necessary so as to ensure
and maintain food security (Onu and Iliyasu, 2008). This shall be a
descriptive survey study intended to assess the analysis of profitability of fruits trade in Yankaba market, Kano
metropolis, Nigeria. There have been little studies carried out to evaluate the
analysis of profitability of fruits trade in Yankaba market, Kano metropolis,
This view motivated a study to assess and make relevant recommendations
to improve agricultural businesses of fruits at this particular market. This study thus
seeks to carry out an investigation into these variables. The study hopes at
the end to make inform and make recommendations to farmers on how to improve
better on their business of fruit vending within the area. The main objective
of the study is to analyze the profitability of fruits trade in Yankaba market
Kano Nigeria. The population for the study will include small and large scale
farmers at this particular market region named above. Both primary and
secondary sources of data will be employed for this study. The purposive and
accidental sampling procedures shall be used to select the respondents. The
sample size will be 192 respondents.  In
this case a scientific calculator will be used in calculating the percentages
and information be presented in contingency tables, graphs and pie charts.

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of the study.

Fruits are very essential in human diet because of their great
nutritional value as sources of vitamins and minerals. Therefore, they have
generated increased marketing. However, in the developing world, per capita
consumption of fruits, together with fruits, is only 100 g compared with 220 g
in the developed countries (Idah, Ajisegiri and Yisa, 2007). The supply of
basic food stuffs at prices within the reach of the average consumer is
necessary so as to ensure and maintain food security (Onu and Iliyasu, 2008).

Population growth in the urban (4 per cent annual increase) and
rural (1.9 per cent annual increase) areas of Sub-Saharan Africa is the highest
in the world. It also has the highest rate of urbanization in the world (about
3.5 per cent per annum). This situation would mean increased demand for food
and therefore increased need for marketing of agricultural food products
(Andres and Lebailly, 2011). This is especially because majority of the efforts
centered on increasing food production have not been impressive enough in
achieving their objectives (Ihimodu, 2004).

In Nigeria, rapid
population growth has brought about an increase in the demand for more food.
Kano Metropolis, as a notable commercial centre, is one of the most rapidly
urbanizing areas in the country (Nabegu, 2008). In fact, Kano is the third
largest commercial centre in Nigeria, after Lagos and Ibadan. Trading,
consisting of wholesale and retail activities constitutes the second largest
economic sector of the Kano economy. Although largely informal, the commerce
sector accounts for approximately 65-75% of domestic trading activities.
Marketing of agricultural produce is one of the dominant commercial activities,
with wholesale of the produce undertaken in specialized markets within Kano Metropolis
(Kano State Government, 2013).

There have been directions of studies on profitability of
agricultural commodities. Some scholars have taken to analyse profitability of
production. Example of these include small scale maize production in Niger state
of Nigeria (Sadiq, Yakasai, Ahmad, Lapkene and Abubakar, 2013), gum arabic
production in Jigawa State of Nigeria (Umar, Audu and Waizah, 2011), groundnut
production in Michika Local Government Area of Adamawa State of Nigeria (Taru,
Kyagya and Mshelia, 2010), small-scale catfish farming in Kaduna State of
Nigeria (Issa, Abdulazeez, Kezi, Dari and Umar, 2014), cassava production in
Eket Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom state of Nigeria (Ebukiba, 2010), urban
agriculture using metropolitan organic waste in Abuja, Nigeria (Arene and
Mbata, 2008). Other researchers have concentrated on profitability of marketing
of the products: rice processing and marketing in Kano State (Inuwa, Kyiogwom,
Ala, Maikasuwa and Ibrahim, 2011), rice processing and marketing Ngoketunjia
Division, North West Region, Cameroon (Bime, Fon,
Ngalim and Ongla, 2014), paddy rice in Ebonyi North Zone of
Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Nwibo, Odo and Igberi, 2013), cattle marketing in Gombe,
Nigeria (Mohammed, Mohammed and Adamu, 2013). This study analyses profitability
of fruits marketing in Yanlemo specialized market of Kano Metropolis. This is
to be achieved using two objectives. One, to establish the level of profit of
fruits trade in the market. Two, to assess the profitability of marketing of fruits
in the market.


Horticulture majorly
fruit production and sale being the prime booster of Nigeria GDP and given its
being practiced by most of the citizens in this country then this makes it an
important issue to be looked upon. With the many challenges that arise from
farming for both the small scale and large scale farmers in this country in a
struggle to improve their horticultural produces. With little research done in
relation to these variables and agri-businesses then it’s prudent enough for
this study to be done thus this study saw the need to evaluate  the profits that are being realized from the
sale of horticultural products that are fruits in that particular market.

of the study

In recent years, horticultural
activities have raised up the GDP of a nation. This was one of most invested in
and most tough department in the growth of Nigeria. The proportion of the
farmers participating in horticulture of fruits are increasing nationwide and
locally is high but the outcome is not what is expected. With this continuous underperformance
of the farmers in their activities does not place the country in a good spot
for economic development. This view motivated a study to assess the analysis of
profitability of fruits trade in Yankaba market, Kano metropolis, Nigeria





What are the major constraints and
opportunities of supply and production of fruits in Yankaba market Kano Nigeria?

What are the impacts of the profits from
the sale of fruits on sustainability of horticulture in Yankaba market Kano

Objectives of the study.

overall objective of the study was to analyze the profitability of fruits trade
in Yankaba market Kano Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study include

Specific Objectives

The find out the major constraints and
opportunities of supply and production of fruits in Yankaba market Kano

The impact of the profits from the sale of
the fruits on sustainability of horticulture in Nigeria.

Significance and Anticipated Output.

study might generate important information useful to formulate fruit marketing
development programs and guidelines for interventions that would improve efficiency
of the fruits marketing system. The potential users of the results of this
study would be farmers, traders, policy makers, governmental and
non-governmental organization, who want to introduce interventions in fruit and
marketing system. Furthermore, this study could be used as source material for
further study.


ü  Language
barrier since most of the residents are local and don’t understand national
languages that well.

ü  Large
area for coverage since this is an agricultural town many of the roads are not
well laid.





Theoretical Framework

Dependent Variable                                                         
independent Variable
























is generally believed that small farm agriculture plays a central role in
economic development, both in supplying a significant portion of the domestic
food crop supplies and in generating income for low-income families. But on the
other hand there are constraints related to access to production resources and
markets (Minot, 1986).

may provide the incentives to profit maximizing participants to develop new
technologies, products, resources of supply, new markets and methods of
exploiting them.

role of marketing in development process could be summarized as follows: the
marketing system channels the net capital surplus out of agricultural sector
which could be used to accentuate the development of industry, infrastructure
and social service; it integrates the farming community in to the market
economy through communication and exchange; the provision of secured market
outlets which encourage producers to increase marketable surplus and diversify
production; and marketing becomes Profit in economics
refers to pure profit, i.e. any excess of revenues over all opportunity cost.
In other words, it is a return in excess of all opportunity costs including
those of capital. Profit is positive when there is an excess of revenues over
costs while it is negative (commonly called losses) when revenues fall short of
the costs (Lipsey, 2007). Therefore, profit refers to the difference between
total gross income and how much it has cost to produce and market the product.
Although any scale can be used to measure profit, it is more commonly measured
using a monetary scale, as money is more easily compared across applications
(Lutzs, 2010).

Profitability, derived from profit and ability, is the power of a
business entity to earn profits or the ability of a given investment to earn a
return from its use (Tulsian, 2014). According to Rahman, Adhikary and Yousuf
(2014) profitability referred to the profit earning capacity of a product,
plant, process or an undertaking. They equated the role of profit and
profitability in business ‘blood’ and ‘pulse’ in human body. “Without adequate
blood and ability to generate blood, it may not be possible on the part of
human being to survive. Like this, without profit and ability to earn
sufficient profit, it is difficult to survive on the part of any business”. It
is one of the best techniques for measuring the productivity of capital
employed and operational efficiency of an investment (Tulsian, 2014).

Nigeria papaya is produced in home gardens and semi-commercial level by farmers
as well as commercial level by state farms for home consumption and local
market (for fresh fruit and juice making). The commercial farms of upper Awash
agro industry (Tibila and Awara, Melka farms), horticulture development
enterprise (Ziwai farm) etc. Many growers prefer papaya to other fruit crops
due to its early fruit bearing nature and ease of production practices
(Jackson, et al, 1985; and IAR, 1991). Papaya trees come in to bearing 9-14
months after planting, then bear year round. The ripe fresh fruit of papaya are
eaten fresh throughout the tropics and are used in preparation of jam, soft drinks,
ice-cream flavoring, and crystallized fruits and in syrup. The seeds are also
used for their medicinal value. Unripe fruits and young leaves can be cooked
and taken as fruits and spinach and the juice facilitate digestion and so that
it is preferable for older people.

production is profitable. Farmers involved in horticulture production usually earn
much higher farm income as compared to cereal producers. Cultivation of fruits
allows for productive employment where the labor/land ratio is high, since horticultural
production is usually labor intensive. Increasing horticulture production contributes
commercialization of the rural economy and creates many off-farm jobs. However,
expanding the scale of horticulture production is often hindered by lack of
market access, market information, and many biological factors (Weinberger and
Lumpkin, 2005).

measures commonly recommended for the improvement of fruits marketing are better
packaging, handling, and transport; sorting by quality; extending the market
season and

 Leveling out gluts and shortages by market
delivery planning and storage; developing new markets; installation of
refrigerated transport and processing equipment: and establishing marketing
enterprises .Bezabih and Hadera (2007) stated that production is seasonal and
price is inversely related to supply. During the peak supply period, the prices
decline. The situation is worsened by the perishability of the products and
poor storage facilities. Along the market channel, 25 percent of the product is

these reviewed literatures severe production seasonality, seasonal price
fluctuations, poor pre-and post-harvest handling, prevalence of pest and
diseases, lack of storage are some of the critical problems encountered fruits
production in Nigeria





3.1 Research design. 

The research design preferred for this
exertion is the descriptive survey design. A descriptive research design asks
who, what, where, how. It is premeditated to deliver supplementary insight into
the research problem by describing the variables of interest and can be used
for describing, defining, segmentation, estimating, predicting, and examining
associative relationships.

This brand of design is also baptized
observational studies because using this approach observes the subjects without
otherwise intervening (Monette, Sullivan & Dejong, 2002; Hopkins, 2000). In
a descriptive study, no attempt is made to change behavior or conditions

The method is also easy to explain and to understand.

3.2 Variables.

The independent variable in this study happens to be the
market for the fruits whilst the dependent variables are sustainability of the
market and the profits and market structure.

3.3 Location of the

The study site will be Yankaba Kano market, which is
located in Nigeria.

3.4 Study

study population will include any small scale and also large scale farmer living
within Yankaba Kano

3.5 Sampling

Convenience sampling will be used
to gather information from 192 farmers who are within the boundaries of within
Yankaba Kano market. By
picking convenience sampling whereby I only vision to deal with those that
showed up at the market and were willing to partake the study.

This kind of sampling also allows me to obtain basic
data and trends regarding profitability of fruits within the region here named without
a lot of complications from using a randomized sample. From this sampling
method the researcher can also detect the relationship growth and development
in relation to the loan offered.

3.6 Sample size determination.

Sample size for this study is determined
using Mugenda and Mugenda (2003) formula for sample size determination.

Sample size n= (Z2pq)


Where; Z = Standard normal deviate set at 95% confidence interval which is

= Proportion estimated to have a characteristic similar to what is being
investigated estimated at 50% which is 0.5)

Statistical significance at 95% confidence level which is 0.05

 = (1.962 x 0.5 x0.5) =    384 respondents.


Due to the language barrier limitations and poor
infrastructure within the area then the researcher will move forward to use 50%
of the sample population thus bringing the total respondents in this particular
study to be 192 respondents achieved by dividing the initial number found by

384 respondents.


  = 192 respondents

3.7 Construction and
Research Instruments

Data will be collected using structured and unstructured questionnaires
and interviews. They will be used as the
main instruments to gather the data from the farmers from the market. The first
section of the questionnaire for the farmers solicits information on what they

3.8 Pilot Study and

pre-test will be piloted prior to the actual data collection time to measure
the appropriateness of the questionnaire with concerns to duration, language
appropriateness, content, validity, and question comprehensibility. This will
also test the competence and efficacy of the tools. Alterations will be made
after the pretest.

3.9 Validity and

Validity is used to determine whether research
measures actually produce the data 
or  qualitative  results 
that  they  intend 
to  measure  and 
to  approximate  the truthfulness of the results (Colorado
State University, 2012). I will submit 
a  draft  of 
the  proposed  interview 
questionnaire  to  the academic supervisor for feedback and
advice on whether the questions could be considered valid for the intended

Reliability is the degree to which an assessment tool
produces stable and consistent results. Inter-rater reliability will be used to
see how the different farmers have opinions on the kilimo biashara loan.

3.1.1 Data analysis.

Data collected
will be checked for completeness and data clearing conducted
before leaving the area. A scientific calculator will be used in calculating
the percentages and the information then presented in contingency tables graphs
and pie charts in relation to objective of the study. Inferential
analysis will be used because the researcher visions to use a smaller
population of the farmers at convenience at the market to point out more
information on profitability of fruits at the market about a larger population
of farmers, by looking at the response of the few selected respondents.

3.1.2 Logistical and
Ethical Considerations

ü  Confidentiality

Information will
be collected after informed consent is assured to the respondents. The study
objectives will be clearly explained to the farmer and each of them assured
that the information provided will be kept confidential. Information
obtained from the subject during interviews will be highly discrete and handled
with at most respect and confidentiality.

ü  Permission
from authorities

proposal will be submitted to Kenyatta University School of agriculture for
approval. Acquiescence will also be sought from the sub county administration
offices before commencement of the research.

ü  Concealment

researcher will ensure that each participant’s identity is not revealed.
During  the  course 
of  the  interviews, 
participants  will  not be 
asked  to  reveal 
their real  names.

ü  Voluntary participation

All participants
will be given the chance to choose whether they want to participate in the
study or not. Their consent will be received before any information is
collected from them. They will be informed they have the right to withdraw from
the study at any point without being victimized in any way.




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